Criminology, Law, and Policies on Sexual Violence Essay

Entry 1

Citation

Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly Ok. “Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism.” American Journal of Public Health 100.3 (2010): 412–419. Web.

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Summary

The researcher presents sexual violence as a priority to public well being within the United States. Sexual violence is considered in relation to legislations and legal guidelines handed aimed toward decreasing recidivism amongst intercourse offenders or criminals. The creator argues that intercourse offenders within the United States are topic to legal guidelines, insurance policies, registration, group notification, in addition to monitoring by means of applied sciences. Further, the article identifies different insurance policies that apply to sexual offenders akin to web restrictions, residency, loitering, and civil dedication. These insurance policies are considered as challenges to the mixing of sexual offenders into society. Multiple insurance policies proscribing the actions of sexual offenders have led to an setting the place sexual offenders can’t be reintegrated efficiently thereby resulting in elevated ranges or danger for recidivism.

Key quotations

“In fact, evidence on the effectiveness of these laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good.” (Bonnar-Kidd 412).

“Since 1996, some states have created ‘safety zones’ or places where a registered sex offender cannot be; others are mandating lifetime global positing system (GPS).” (Bonnar-Kidd 415).

Evaluation

The article presents the effectiveness of legal guidelines and insurance policies on sexual-related offenses within the reintegration course of. The article is important in order that legal guidelines developed by policymakers are modified based mostly on their position in rising the extent of sexual offenses within the United States. Laws mandating lifetime international positing system (GPS) should not appropriate for the reintegration of intercourse offenders in society. The article, subsequently, presents an evaluation of the results of legal guidelines and insurance policies on the reintegration strategy of criminals into society.

Entry 2

Citation

Brown, Geneva. “The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry: Challenges for African-American Women.” American Constitution Society for Law and Policy – Issue Brief November (2010): 1–18. Web.

Summary

This article is about mass incarceration of African-American women and men to jail. The creator argues that mass incarceration of African-American residents has led to challenges in reintegration into communities. In specific, incarceration within the United States has been radicalized based mostly in philosophies of order regimes. African-American residents are overrepresented in every prison class. Further, police departments and techniques used contain using pressure in direction of African-American communities thereby resulting in discriminatory therapy by law enforcement officials. Reintegration into the group is affected by discriminatory therapy of African-American criminals into the society. Other challenges of reintegration of criminals into the society within the United States relate to restricted funding on companies that improve the reintegration course of. The authors argue that authorized reforms have led to challenges of non-involvement in schooling, employment, and housing. Race and gender are main challenges of reintegrating criminals into the society.

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Key quotations

“The legal community has overlooked the impact of the intersectionality of race and gender, and the criminal justice system suffers from the same dilemma. Law enforcement, the government, and research institutions measure ‘gender’ as ‘white women’ and ‘race’ as ‘African-American man’.” (Brown 2)

“African-American women face challenges in re-entry and reintegration that other populations do not have to face.”(Brown 3)

Evaluation

The article presents the thought of race as a problem to reintegration. African-American girls face challenges in reintegration course of as a result of they’re care givers, head of households, and moms. When such members of the society develop into criminals, youngsters expertise difficulties as a result of earnings generated by African-American girls is misplaced. Children of such moms expertise challenges in foster care whereas ready for fogeys to be launched from jail. The reintegration course of is affected as a result of youngsters are completely severed from households and oldsters. African-American women and men develop into ignored by the mainstream group in addition to police departments.

Entry 3

Citation

Freudenberg, Nicholas. “Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and Their Families and Communities.” American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1725–1736. Web.

Summary

The article is about social and well being penalties throughout reintegration course of within the United States. The creator states that over 10 million residents within the United States enter jails in every year. Most of the jail entry inhabitants return dwelling inside a number of weeks. The article states that jails have infectious and power ailments that have an effect on reintegration of criminals as soon as they depart jails. Further, substance abuse in addition to psychological well being challenges are key difficulties that have an effect on reintegration of criminals into the society. The experiences of criminals leaving jails contribute to challenges in well being and earnings after they return to communities. The research centered on adolescent males and grownup girls from New York City jails. The outcomes present that adolescents and grownup girls from jails expertise lack of employment and low earnings after they return to the society.

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Key quotations

“A year after release, young men were less likely to get money from illegal activities such as drug selling or stealing.” (Freudenberg. 193)

“At follow-up, young men were more likely to be working than prior to arrest and much less likely to be in school.” (Freudenberg. 195)

“A third of women had been homeless in the past year and 63% reported histories of physical or sexual abuse.” (Freudenberg. 195)

Evaluation

This article focuses majorly on experiences from jail in addition to financial challenges affecting adolescents and grownup girls. Reintegration of younger males and grownup girls from jails is affected by difficulties of earnings and psychological well being issues. Mental well being issues are a part of the experiences from jail whereas low earnings or lack of employment is a part of poor help methods from the group to help individuals from jails. Reintegration can also be affected as a result of individuals resort to earnings sources from unlawful actions since they can not interact in formal employment. Stereotypes developed about criminals don’t help find formal employment after jail phrases.

Entry 4

Citation

Torjesen, Stina. “Towards a Theory of Ex-Combatant Reintegration.” Stability: International Journal of Security & Development 2.3 (2013): 63. Web.

Summary

The journal offers with the reintegration of ex-combatants after warfare. The article adopts a dialogue on reintegration based mostly on experiences of ex-combatants reasonably than help packages developed by nationwide and worldwide businesses. According to creator, reintegration of e-combatants is considered by way of sociology and political economic system. In specific, sociology and political economic system have an affect on energy and group belonging. One of the difficulties for reintegration pertains to rejection by households and society members. Reintegration of ex-combatants and criminals rely son relations developed with civilians and the character of help obtained from households. Criminals and ex-combatants obtain rejection thereby resulting in challenges in reintegration course of. Criminals and ex-combatants are at all times marginalized within the social order. In international locations which were ravaged by wars and excessive variety of criminals gangs, it’s essential to implement land reforms, in addition to insurance policies that help ex-combatants and criminals stay in concord with the remainder of the society members.

Key quotations

“Indeed the promotion of a home community return could entail an unfortunate return to pre-war status quo for them, which in turn might mean re-marginalization and renewed seeds of unrest (Torjesen 4)

“Political reintegration involves ending efforts to achieve political goals through violent means. Combatants enter into mainstream politics at the local, regional, or national level either as individual voters or as political advocates or representatives of a political group.” (Torjesen 6)

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Evaluation

From the above evaluation, it’s clear that reintegration of ex-combatants into the society is affected by rejection and low help from members of the family. The society develops a worry that ex-combatants and criminals might interact in prison actions. It is essential to look at the extent at which criminals interact in politics in order that reforms might be initiated that encourage their profitable integration.

Entry 5

Citation

Larrauri, E. “Conviction Records in Spain: Obstacles to Reintegration of Offenders?” European Journal of Probation 3.1 (2011): 50–62. Web.

Summary

This article presents an argument that conviction information have an effect on reintegration of criminals or offenders into the society, particularly within the labour market. In societies the place conviction information might be accessed by members of the society, criminals expertise challenges of profitable integration. In specific, employers in such societies demand that worker is vetted based mostly on conviction information. Availability of conviction information to employers and society members is subsequently a significant problem in reintegration of criminals particularly after they want employment to outlive within the society. Unemployment or lack of employment due to conviction information solely results in a society that doesn’t help reintegration of criminals.

Key quotations

“Besides the legal implications of having a prior conviction, the criminological assumption is that the conviction record poses an obstacle to reintegration (e.g. access to jobs, loss of potential rights, disenfranchisement). The conviction record reinforces a felonious identity and makes it difficult to adopt a new identity, that of a law abiding citizen” (Larrauri 50).

“A conviction record impacts upon an offender’s life after serving their sentence”

“In Spain, the law states that “certifications can be requested by a different person than the recorded subject; but if there are conviction records, these will only be given with his consent.” (Larrauri 52)

Evaluation

Conviction information shouldn’t be accessed by employers and different members of the society with out the consent of the prison or offender. However, when legal guidelines are established in order that criminals conviction information are availed to employers, it presents a problem for the prison or offender to develop one other id within the society that isn’t related to prison actions. Each individual needs to be given an opportunity to develop a brand new id with out restriction on employment based mostly on previous conviction information.

Entry 6

Citation

Davies, Matthew. “The Reintegration of Elderly Prisoners: An Exploration of Services.” Internet Journal of Criminology 6743 (2011): 1–32. Print.

Summary

The journal is about reintegration of aged prisoners in England and Wales based mostly on help companies accessible within the society. The creator argues that aged criminals in England and Wales have little or no or no help companies after they depart prisons. Despite rising variety of aged criminals popping out of prisons, the prison justice system has no help methods that improve reintegration thereby resulting in overcrowded prisons in Wales and England. Overcrowding in prisons thereby poses challenges to older era when in comparison with the youthful era prisoner. A significant problem or problem in reintegration of older prisoners relate to struggles with resettlement due to difficulties in psychological changes made in jail. The article additionally presents an argument that reintegration of older prisoners into the society is affected by lack of help networks locally, in addition to challenges in relation to well being and mobility considerations. Stereotypes a couple of ‘young male criminal’ have led to lack of help amenities for the older era.

Key quotations

“There is currently no nationwide strategy for responding to the needs of elderly prisoners. Instead, the management of elderly prisoners rests upon piecemeal regulation and localized and individual initiatives.” (Davies 11)

“The core aims of current resettlement policy involve ‘reducing re-offending’ and ‘protecting the public’. Arguably, they their very nature, these goals exclude the needs of elderly prisoners.” (Davies 13)

Evaluation

The experiences of the aged are totally different from the remainder of jail inhabitants. Psychological difficulties as experiences from jail are main difficulties within the reintegration course of. The aged prisoners should not prone to have mates as soon as they depart jail thereby resulting in challenges within the socialization strategy of reintegration. In addition, older prisoners may lack household help methods. Elderly individuals are additionally extra prone to develop severe well being issues. Policies ought to assure availability of well being methods that enhance the dwelling circumstances of aged prisoners throughout reintegration course of.

Entry 7

Citation

Mcmullin, Jaremey R. “Integration or Separation? The Stigmatisation of Ex-Combatants after War.” Review of International Studies December 2004 (2012): 1–30. Web.

Summary

Stereotypes about criminals and ex-combatants have an effect on profitable reintegration into the society. The research was carried out in Liberia to find out the extent of stigmatization and its impact within the reintegration of ex-combatants into the society. The researcher argues that stereotypes about criminals and ex-combatants have an effect on their integration into financial, social, and political life after the top of battle. Social, political, and financial life are at all times designed to separate communities from criminals and ex-combatants. Criminals and ex-convicts are considered as naturally or inherently threatening to peace after conflicts within the society. Such stereotypes needs to be eradicated or challenged in order that the reintegration course of isn’t affected thereby resulting in escalation of conflicts.

Key quotations

“These impacts of the threat and resentment narratives matter not just for Liberia but also for other processes of post-conflict reintegration and reconciliation.” (Mcmullin 29)

“The sustainable social and economic reintegration of former combatants should be the ultimate objective of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.” (Mcmullin1)

Evaluation

This supply appears to be like at reintegration in relation to ex-combatants as criminals within the society. The article states that stereotypes on ex-criminals and ex-combatants have an effect on peace throughout post-conflict. Ex-combatants needs to be assisted in order that social and financial in addition to political methods favour their reintegration course of.

Entry 8

Citation

Dwyer, Clare D., and Shadd Maruna. “The Role of Self-Help Efforts in the Reintegration of ‘Politically Motivated’ Former Prisoners: Implications from the Northern Irish Experience.” Crime, Law and Social Change 55.4 (2011): 293–309. Web.

Summary

The article is about reintegration of prisoners from the northern Irish battle. The researcher states that self-help (mutual help) play an essential position within the reintegration strategy of prisoners into the society. Self-help packages in northern Irish battle are based mostly on restoration from dependancy. The researcher focuses on politically motivated prisoners in addition to strange prisoners. Self-help packages are crucial for prisoners with addictive behaviours in order that they develop into regular members of the society. Self-help actions are social methods established by former prisoners in order that supportive community might be availed to help the reintegration of ex-criminals within the society.

Key quotations

“The concept of ‘self-help’ has been paramount to groups formed to facilitate the reintegration of former combatants/former prisoners.” (Dwyer and Maruna 294)

“Ironically, the term ‘self-help’ implies that individuals get involved in efforts in order to benefit themselves; however contrary to this, one of the key features of self-help work is that people come together to help one another.” (Dwyer and Maruna 295)

Evaluation

This article is important as a result of it introduces the thought of self-help as an idea in reintegration of criminals again into the society. Current and former prisoners are inspired to develop self-help packages in order that prisoners launched into the society can discover acceptable help methods that enhance social, political, and financial well-being self-help packages make sure that prisoners avoid crime and violence in addition to different crime actions motivated by politics.

Works Cited

Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly Ok. “Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism.” American Journal of Public Health 100.3 (2010): 412–419. Web.

Brown, Geneva. “The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry: Challenges for African-American Women.” American Constitution Society for Law and Policy – Issue Brief November (2010): 1–18. Web.

Davies, Matthew. “The Reintegration of Elderly Prisoners: An Exploration of Services.” Internet Journal of Criminology 6743 (2011): 1–32. Print.

Dwyer, Clare D., and Shadd Maruna. “The Role of Self-Help Efforts in the Reintegration of ‘Politically Motivated’ Former Prisoners: Implications from the Northern Irish Experience.” Crime, Law and Social Change 55.4 (2011): 293–309. Web.

Freudenberg, Nicholas. “Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and their Families and Communities.” American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1725–1736. Web.

Larrauri, E. “Conviction Records in Spain: Obstacles to Reintegration of Offenders?” European Journal of Probation 3.1 (2011): 50–62. Web.

Mcmullin, Jaremey R. “Integration or Separation? The Stigmatisation of Ex-Combatants after War.” Review of International Studies December 2004 (2012): 1–30. Web.

Torjesen, Stina. “Towards a Theory of Ex-Combatant Reintegration.” Stability: International Journal of Security & Development 2.3 (2013): 63. Web.

Seven extra sources

Bamidele, Oluwaseun. “Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Children in Armed Conflict.” Peace Review 24.3 (2012): 284–291. Web.

Banholzer, Lilli, and Roos Haer. “Attaching and Detaching: The Successful Reintegration of Child Soldiers.” Journal of Development Effectiveness 6.2 (2014): 111–127. Web.

Bowd, Richard, and Alpaslan Özerdem. “How to Assess Social Reintegration of Ex-Combatants.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7.4 (2013): 453–475. Web.

Maina, Grace. “Human Securitised Reintegration of Formerly Abducted Children in Northern Uganda.” African Security Review 18.4 (2009): 115–122. Web.

McMullin, Jaremey. “Reintegration of Combatants: Were the Right Lessons Learned in Mozambique?” International Peacekeeping 11.4 (2004): 625–643. Web.

Mitton, Kieran. “Engaging Disengagement: The Political Reintegration of Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front.” Conflict, Security & Development 8.2 (2008): 193–222. Web.

So, Jon. “‘Fighting a War Alone’: Reintegration of Ex-Offenders from Ethnic Minority Groups.” China Journal of Social Work 7.1 (2014): 64–77. Web.

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