Education and Recidivism within the US and Scandinavia Essay

Table of Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Research Question
  3. Scope, Goals, and Importance
  4. Analysis Approach
  5. Work Plan
  6. Annotated Bibliography
  7. References

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Introduction

The prison justice system of the United States is usually criticized as overly harsh and ineffective as a rehabilitation instrument. It is claimed to destroy inmates’ lives with its brutality and excessive sentencing, driving them to return to crime after launch on account of an absence of different alternatives. The given strategy produces a number of adversarial results on folks and complicates their resocialization and reintegration with societies. In such a manner, previously incarcerated folks have many boundaries stopping them from residing in communities and growing recidivism charges. On the opposite hand, Nordic and Scandinavian jail methods are sometimes thought-about exemplary, that includes minimally harsh situations and meant to assist the inmates return to society. Through their revolutionary open jail idea, they let folks maintain working or attain increased schooling, which ought to tackle their points after launch and forestall them from returning to crime. Possessing expertise and data that may be helpful sooner or later, former prisoners purchase the possibility to discover a job, discover a place in communities, and keep away from committing new crimes. In such a manner, a milder strategy to working with offenders has a number of benefits that may assist to reintegrate them into society. A comparability of the variations within the alternatives that the 2 methods present and the outcomes that they obtain is due to this fact warranted.

Research Question

Fassin (2016) describes the harshness of the American jail system, as much as and together with its 60 “super max prisons” with subsequent to no human contact. On the opposite hand, Lee (2019, 194-195) gives the instance of the Danish Falster jail, the world’s most humane most safety facility. Additionally, per Castro et al. (2018, 418), solely 202 of the U.S.’s 4627 postsecondary schooling amenities offered programs for prisons. On the opposite hand, jail schooling is normalized in a lot of Scandinavian legislation (Cleere 2020), and other people in open prisons can proceed studying as regular. The given elements exhibit the existence of essential variations between the 2 methods and approaches utilized by the governments to work with offenders. The radical divergence between the penitentiary methods triggers a number of debates about their effectiveness and the impression on the long run life of individuals. The opponents argue whether or not the gentle strategy can assist to cut back recidivism charges and help previously incarcerated folks of their makes an attempt to perform in society. The variations in opinions and visions precondition the necessity for the in-depth investigation of each paradigms to check and conclude concerning the affect they may have on folks. As such, the analysis query for this paper could be, “Do the conditions at Scandinavian prisons and their education opportunities reduce the recidivism rates among inmates compared to those in the United States?”

Scope, Goals, and Importance

The venture will consider the recidivism outcomes for jail inmates within the United States, Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden over the past 5 years, subdivided by the kind of crime they dedicated and academic attainment whereas in jail. A big scope of the issue is evidenced by the truth that the prison justice system is prime for the efficient work of any society because it ensures safety to residents and ensures the secure functioning of communities. Under these situations, the proper alternative of the strategy to working with offenders influences states and their skill to battle with crime waves. Recidivism stays a nagging downside threatening the well-being of residents and deteriorating the standard of their lives. Additionally, it calls for vital prices from the funds to work with offenders and assure applicable punishment and situations. That is why the alteration of the system in direction of its elevated effectiveness is significant for future progress and the power to create a protected surroundings. The analysis can promote constructive change and foster the shift in direction of more practical practices.

The purpose might be to ascertain whether or not people that commit the identical crimes benefit from instructional alternatives and efficiently rehabilitate extra in nations the place these choices are extra accessible. The significance of the analysis is in its affirmation or refutation of the prevalence of Scandinavian exceptionalism as an strategy to rehabilitation. Drake (2018, 5) claims that, whereas such a bonus is usually asserted, the much less extreme situations of Scandinavian jail don’t take away the expertise of liberty loss that’s central to the jail expertise. As such, the prisoners’ basic situation doesn’t change considerably, and the variations might solely obtain a minor impact. Following the purpose, it is important to research whether or not the schooling alternatives and total milder strategy have an effect on the long run lifetime of ex-offenders and their possibilities for profitable rehabilitation and changing into neighborhood members. The given purpose presupposes using knowledge about previously incarcerated folks, their experiences, and the power to reintegrate into society. At the identical time, it implies evaluating two reverse prison justice methods, which is significant for the improved imaginative and prescient of how they are often utilized to specific conditions and communities.

Furthermore, the importance of the analysis situation comes from the excessive recidivism charges and the topical downside of crime. Regardless of a number of makes an attempt, there’s a vital variety of ex-offenders who can not reintegrate and have interaction in new crimes. It would possibly happen due to numerous causes; nonetheless, the inconsistency of the prison justice system is among the main elements affecting the issue and complicating it. For occasion, within the USA, about 60% of previously incarcerated people are imprisoned once more due to numerous crimes (Katsiyannis et al. 2018). This quantity evidences the shortcoming of the prison system to make sure the suitable rehabilitation and reintegration of people. For this cause, there are quite a few appeals to change the present strategy and use the instance of Scandinavian states with their distinctive imaginative and prescient of imprisonment. Comparing the 2 methods, it’s potential to accumulate an enhanced understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of the employed approaches and conclude whether or not some practices may be utilized to different settings.

Analysis Approach

The research might be quantitative in nature, gathering numeric data and inferring relationships from it. The alternative of the quantitative analysis paradigm is justified by a number of info. First, it helps to gather numerical knowledge concerning the situation of curiosity, course of it, and use statistical instruments to symbolize findings in clear and comprehensible methods. Second, sing the quantitative analysis paradigm, the researcher acquires an opportunity to work with a bigger pattern, which influences the validity of findings, their credibility, and the sensible utility of conclusions. Finally, it gives goal and correct knowledge that can be utilized for dialogue and concluding concerning the benefits or disadvantages of a sure prison justice system. Considering these elements and the character of the venture, using quantitative measures appears a preferable choice wanted to extend the worth of the research. The researcher will gather knowledge about jail sentences, schooling, and recidivism within the nations outlined within the research and subdivide it primarily based on the kind of crime dedicated. They will then analyze the tutorial attainment charges in every of the teams in addition to the recidivism charges in it. They will even decide the recidivism charges amongst individuals who attained specific instructional achievements. Having obtained this data, the researcher will then conduct a collection of ANOVA exams to find out whether or not the variations in schooling and recidivism means throughout every nation are vital.

Work Plan

  1. Preliminary literature evaluation (2 weeks, learn Byrd and McCloud (2020), Cleere (2020), Cline and Wheeler (2019), Fassin (2016), Lee (2019), and Reid (2019)).
  2. Write the introduction (1 week, learn Drake (2018), Katsiyannis et al. (2018), Schiff and Ugelvik (2017), and Tønseth, Bergsland, and Hui (2019)).
  3. Write the literature evaluation (2 weeks, learn the remaining bibliography sources together with others).
  4. Write the methodology (1 week).
  5. Write the info evaluation part (2 months).
  6. Write the dialogue part (2 weeks).
  7. Write the conclusion part (1 week).
  8. Proofread, evaluation, and finalize the paper (2 weeks).

Annotated Bibliography

Andersen, Synøve N., and Kjetil Telle. 2019. “Better Out Than In? The Effect on Recidivism of Replacing Incarceration with Electronic Monitoring in Norway.” European Journal of Criminology. Web.

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The authors talk about the follow applied in Norway between 2008 and 2011 of electronically monitoring convicted criminals as a substitute of incarcerating them. Through this technique, the individual can largely reside their life as typical, although there are nonetheless restrictions on their actions. The authors discover that the strategy had a constructive impact on decreasing recidivism, particularly for folks with out prior offenses or unemployment. They counsel that the first causes are the shortage of stigma they might obtain in the event that they went to jail and the upkeep of their work relations.

Byrd, Roger C., and Harvey McCloud. 2020. Sisyphus No More: The Case for Prison Education. London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

The authors make a case for increasing schooling offered in American prisons to assist inmates return to society and keep away from recidivism. They discover that, beneath the present system, instructional attainment for prisoners is way decrease than that of individuals and not using a prison report. They make the case that offering schooling for prisoners may have constructive social, moral, and monetary results.

Castro, Erin L., Rebecca Ok. Hunter, Tara Hardison, and Vanessa Johnson-Ojeda. 2018. “The Landscape of Postsecondary Education in Prison and the Influence of Second Chance Pell: An Analysis of Transferability, Credit-Bearing Status, and Accreditation.” The Prison Journal 98 (4): 405-426.

The authors of this work try to grasp the diploma of availability of postsecondary schooling in American prisons. They discover that, amongst 4627 complete accredited establishments, solely 202 supply such programs, which is a rise of not less than 24 because the 2016 initiation of the Second Chance Pell. The research concludes that total, the proportion of amenities that supply the service is just too low, and additional analysis is important to grasp the connection between federal insurance policies and such alternatives.

Cleere, Geraldine. 2020. Prison Education and Desistance: Changing Perspectives. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

The creator investigates the connection between jail schooling and the power of the launched inmate to desist from committing further crimes. To that finish, they evaluation the idea, gather proof for schooling availability and private change in numerous methods, and make use of a number of theories to elucidate the phenomenon. They conclude that jail schooling is very useful for each people and the system.

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Cline, Hugh F., and Stanton Wheeler. 2019. The Scandinavian Prison Study. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

The authors conduct an in-depth evaluation of fifteen Scandinavian prisons in a research that was revealed as a ebook. They analyze the social local weather of those amenities and the results it has on inmates. They conclude that the Scandinavian system was born from a mix of tradition and historic political developments which have created Scandinavian exceptionalism.

Drake, Deborah. 2018. “Prisons and State Building: Promoting ‘The Fiasco of the Prison’ in a Global Context.” International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 7 (4): 1-15.

The creator argues that prisons have failed of their position, each conceptually and in follow. They declare that prisons’ undemocratic and repressive nature contradicts the rules of democracy that it’s imagined to uphold. The relevance of the article to this research is in its assertion that Scandinavian open prisons fail to handle this basic downside regardless of their outward leniency.

Fassin, Didier. 2016. Prison Worlds: An Ethnography of the Carceral Condition. Oxford: Wiley.

The creator discusses the evolution of prisons, each within the United States and world wide. They discover that, in the hunt for order and safety, they change into unnecessarily brutal and repressive towards inmates, constituting extreme punishment for which they weren’t meant. They conclude that trendy authorized theorists must rethink the which means and objective of prisons, redesigning them for a extra humane imaginative and prescient.

Katsiyannis, Antonis, Denise Ok. Whitford, Dake Zhang, and Nicholas A. Gage. 2018. “Adult Recidivism in United States: A Meta-Analysis 1994–2015.” Journal of Child and Family Studies 27 (3): 686-696.

The authors conduct a longitudinal research of recidivism within the United States between 1994 and 2015. They discover that gender, age, socioeconomic standing, and psychological variables are associated to the likelihood of repeat offenses, whereas prison historical past or race aren’t. They counsel a number of potential avenues for decreasing recidivism charges which are primarily based on proof.

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Lee, Bandy X. 2019. Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures. Oxford: Wiley.

The creator considers all facets of violence, equivalent to its sorts, causes, outcomes, and coverings for it. As a part of the ultimate part, they talk about a number of completely different jail methods, notably the Scandinavian one, and the assorted therapies they make use of. The creator concludes that the American mannequin of mass incarceration and different measures has exacerbated the problem as a substitute of resolving it.

Manger, Terje, Ole Johan Eikeland, and Arve Asbjørnsen. 2019. “Why do Not More Prisoners Participate in Adult Education? An Analysis of Barriers to Education in Norwegian Prisons.” International Review of Education 65 (5): 711-733.

The authors contemplate the query of why, regardless of the provision of schooling to them, many Norwegian prisoners don’t take part in schooling. They formulate a mannequin that includes institutional, situational, and dispositional boundaries and ensure it by way of a survey of prisoners. They counsel methods for prisons to handle the primary and the final whereas admitting that the second impediment class might show difficult to beat.

Reid, Sue Titus. 2019. A Basic Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: Wolters Kluwer.

The creator considers the prison justice system in all of its facets, together with policing, court docket, and corrections in addition to juvenile courts. Among different issues, they talk about the historical past of jail schooling within the United States, with a number of actors aiming to undermine it. They conclude that jail budgets should be elevated to broaden work and teaching programs.

Schiff, Peter Scharff, and Thomas Ugelvik. 2017. “Punishment and Welfare in Scandinavia.” In Scandinavian Penal History, Culture and Prison Practice, edited by Peter Scharff Schiff and Thomas Ugelvik, 511-530. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

In the concluding chapter of the general ebook, the authors summarize the findings from every of the previous chapters. They goal to reply the query of whether or not the Scandinavian manner of designing and working prisons is exclusive and what points it had. Among different findings, they observe that open prisons function due to the implicit risk of being despatched to a higher-security facility for misbehaving.

Tønseth, Christin, Ragnhild Bergsland, and Sammy King Fai Hui. 2019. “Prison Education in Norway – The Importance for Work and Life after Release.” Cogent Education 6 (1): 405-426.

The authors research the results of jail schooling on the lives of prisoners after they have been launched. By conducting a collection of interviews with former inmates and bureaucrats who work with them, they discover that the recipients of schooling skilled social profit, self-determination, and accountability enhancements. They conclude that studying goes past formal {qualifications} and competence, serving to members rethink their previous decisions and take management of their lives.

References

Andersen, Synøve N., and Kjetil Telle. 2019. “Better Out Than In? The Effect on Recidivism of Replacing Incarceration with Electronic Monitoring in Norway.” European Journal of Criminology. Web.

Byrd, Roger C., and Harvey McCloud. 2020. Sisyphus No More: The Case for Prison Education. London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Castro, Erin L., Rebecca Ok. Hunter, Tara Hardison, and Vanessa Johnson-Ojeda. 2018. “The Landscape of Postsecondary Education in Prison and the Influence of Second Chance Pell: An Analysis of Transferability, Credit-Bearing Status, and Accreditation.” The Prison Journal 98 (4): 405-426.

Cleere, Geraldine. 2020. Prison Education and Desistance: Changing Perspectives. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

Cline, Hugh F., and Stanton Wheeler. 2019. The Scandinavian Prison Study. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Drake, Deborah. 2018. “Prisons and State Building: Promoting ‘The Fiasco of the Prison’ in a Global Context.” International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy 7 (4): 1-15.

Fassin, Didier. 2016. Prison Worlds: An Ethnography of the Carceral Condition. Oxford: Wiley.

Katsiyannis, Antonis, Denise Ok. Whitford, Dake Zhang, and Nicholas A. Gage. 2018. “Adult Recidivism in United States: A Meta-Analysis 1994–2015.” Journal of Child and Family Studies 27 (3): 686-696.

Lee, Bandy X. 2019. Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures. Oxford: Wiley.

Manger, Terje, Ole Johan Eikeland, and Arve Asbjørnsen. 2019. “Why do Not More Prisoners Participate in Adult Education? An Analysis of Barriers to Education in Norwegian Prisons.” International Review of Education 65 (5): 711-733.

Reid, Sue Titus. 2019. A Basic Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: Wolters Kluwer.

Schiff, Peter Scharff, and Thomas Ugelvik. 2017. “Punishment and Welfare in Scandinavia.” In Scandinavian Penal History, Culture and Prison Practice, edited by Peter Scharff Schiff and Thomas Ugelvik, 511-530. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tønseth, Christin, Ragnhild Bergsland, and Sammy King Fai Hui. 2019. “Prison Education in Norway – The Importance for Work and Life after Release.” Cogent Education 6 (1): 405-426.

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