Freudian Theory of Personality Presentation

Introduction

  • Personality:
    • First research and theories appeared within the nineteenth century.
  • Sigmund Freud:
    • A pioneer in creating the speculation of character (Burger, 2014).
    • Developed psychoanalysis (a selected strategy to finding out character) (Engler, 2014).
  • This challenge:
    • describes the Freudian principle of character;
    • reveals controversies related to the speculation.

Despite the truth that folks had been all the time considering finding out character, the primary investigations of this facet and theories appeared solely within the nineteenth century. Sigmund Freud was among the many pioneers of creating the speculation of character (Burger, 2014). Freud grew to become referred to as the primary character theorist who developed the strategy of psychoanalysis as the idea for his principle and as a selected strategy to researching the character of a person’s character (Engler, 2014). The objective of this challenge is to explain the Freudian principle of character and give attention to finding out controversies related to Freud’s theoretical views.

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Reasoning for Selecting the Freudian Theory of Personality

  • The Freudian principle of character:
    • the primary formal principle of character with assumptions and ideas;
    • primarily based on a number of works written by Freud;
    • extremely criticized (Burger, 2014);
    • essentially the most acknowledged principle of character;
    • one of the referred theoretical fashions in psychology (Schultz & Schultz, 2016);
    • influenced virtually all additional theoretical views concerning character.

The Freudian principle of character is chosen for being mentioned on this challenge as a result of it’s the first formal principle of character that was formulated with all its assumptions and ideas. In spite of the truth that Freud as a neurologist and a researcher wrote a number of works on his principle of psychoanalysis, these views had been extremely criticized (Burger, 2014). Still, the Freudian principle of character stays to be essentially the most acknowledged principle on this area, and it requires the detailed evaluation because it is without doubt one of the most referred theoretical fashions in psychology (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). This principle influenced virtually all additional theoretical views within the area of finding out character.

Freud’s Approach to Viewing Personality

  • The Freudian principle of character:
    • a results of cooperation with Jean-Martin Charcot and Joseph Breuer;
    • have roots in finding out hysteria, utilizing hypnosis (the case of Anna O.) (Burger, 2014);
    • primarily based on finding out a free affiliation strategy and sufferers’ unconscious processes;
    • three elements of character;
    • the unconscious considerably influences an individual’s conduct.

The Freudian principle of character grew to become a results of the theorist’s cooperation with Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist, and later with Joseph Breuer, a doctor. While working with Breuer, Freud grew to become considering utilizing hypnosis and finding out hysteria (Burger, 2014). The give attention to finding out different strategies of treating hysteria referring to the case of Anna O. allowed Freud to introduce a free affiliation strategy. Later, Freud grew to become focused on finding out a affected person’s unconscious processes, and this observe allowed him to formulate the important thing concepts of his principle: character has three elements, corresponding to acutely aware, preconscious, and unconscious, and the unconscious half can considerably affect an individual’s conduct (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).

The Topographic Model

Personality:

  • The acutely aware:
    • an higher layer of the character;
    • ideas and perceptions.
  • The preconscious:
    • a deeper layer;
    • recollections, fears, doubts, and information.
  • The unconscious:
    • the deepest layer;
    • motives, aggression, and hidden wishes (Burger, 2014).

Personality is split into three elements: the acutely aware, the preconscious, and the unconscious. The acutely aware is an higher layer of the character that’s represented by ideas and perceptions of people. The preconscious is a layer that represents recollections, fears, doubts, and information that people should not conscious of if they aren’t centered on these elements. The unconscious represents the deepest a part of the character which is related to people’ motives, aggression, and hidden wishes (Burger, 2014). In spite of being hidden deeply, these elements affect an individual’s conduct and actions.

The Structural Model

Personality:

  • The id:
    • satisfaction of non-public wants and wishes;
    • give attention to pleasures, no recognized limits or obstacles.
  • The ego:
    • controls id impulses, wishes, and ideas;
    • capabilities in any respect ranges of the character.
  • The superego:
    • an individual’s morality and values (Burger, 2014);
    • self-regulation and self-control.

The additional growth of the thought of character led to the identification of the id, the ego, and the superego as elements of the character. The id is related to a person’s satisfaction of non-public wants and wishes. The focus is on pleasures, and there aren’t any recognized limits or obstacles. This half is related to the unconscious. The ego is the a part of the character that controls id impulses oriented to satisfying fundamental wants, in addition to different wishes and ideas, and it will possibly perform in any respect ranges of the character, together with the acutely aware, the preconscious, and the unconscious. The superego is related to an individual’s morality and values (Burger, 2014). Thus, it’s related to a person’s self-regulation and self-control on the highest moral stage.

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Instincts

Instincts = inner forces.

  • Libido:
    • sexual or life instincts;
    • encourage pleasure-/satisfaction-oriented actions;
    • encourage sexual behaviors;
    • encourage actions related to discovering meals and water (Engler, 2014).
  • Thanatos:
    • aggressive or demise instincts;
    • stimulate aggression, self-destructive behaviors, and socially threatening behaviors (Burger, 2014).

According to Freud, the actions of all elements of the character are pushed by instincts seen as inner forces. There are two kinds of these instincts: sexual instincts (libido) and aggressive instincts (thanatos). Sexual or life instincts encourage a variety of actions, together with pleasure- or satisfaction-oriented actions, sexual behaviors, and actions related to discovering meals and water (Engler, 2014). Aggressive or demise instincts stimulate folks’s aggression, self-destructive behaviors, and socially threatening behaviors (Burger, 2014).

Defense Mechanisms

  • Protect from traumatic experiences and painful recollections.:
    • Sublimation;
    • displacement;
    • repression;
    • denial;
    • intellectualization;
    • response formation;
    • projection;
    • rationalization;
    • undoing (Burger, 2014; Engler, 2014).
  • Examples:
    • Sublimation:
      • utilizing unconscious impulses for producing one thing new.
    • Displacement:
      • directing unfavorable ideas/actions towards one other object.
    • Repression:
      • repressing unfavorable experiences with out letting them develop into acutely aware.

Freud acknowledged that many traumatic experiences and painful recollections could be hidden within the unconscious. To stop them from changing into the a part of the acutely aware and affecting people’ ideas and actions, folks use protection mechanisms that shield them from anxiousness. These mechanisms embrace sublimation, displacement, repression, denial, intellectualization, response formation, projection, rationalization, and undoing amongst others (Burger, 2014; Engler, 2014). There are some examples and explanations. Sublimation is related to utilizing unconscious impulses for producing one thing new or for exercising. Displacement is related to directing unfavorable ideas or actions towards one other object. Repression is said to repressing unfavorable experiences with out letting them develop into acutely aware.

Stages of Development

  • Associated with childhood;
  • affect the grownup life.
  • Oral stage (birth-18 months):
    • the mouth and lips;
    • dependence on others;
    • oral satisfaction.
  • Anal stage (18 months-3 years):
    • the anus;
    • significance of bathroom coaching.
  • Phallic stage (3-6 years):
    • the penis and clitoris;
    • the Oedipus complicated (Burger, 2014).
  • Latent stage (6 years-puberty):
    • sublimation of sexual instincts.
  • Genital stage (adolescence-adulthood):
    • sexual id;
    • sexual intercourses (Engler, 2014).

Freud recognized a number of psychosexual levels of growth which can be related to a person’s childhood, they usually additionally affect his or her grownup life. These levels are oral, anal, and phallic ones. While overcoming these levels, youngsters can expertise issues or fixate their vitality on some levels with out shifting to others.

At the oral stage, which lasts from the start to 18 months, erogenous zones are the mouth and lips. Those individuals who fixate on this stage are often depending on others and give attention to the oral satisfaction.

At the anal stage, which lasts from 18 months to a few years, an erogenous zone is the anal area, and successes in bathroom coaching can affect the event of character.

At the phallic stage, which lasts from three to 6 years, erogenous zones are penis and clitoris (Burger, 2014). Freud defined the Oedipus complicated with reference to this stage and kids’s attraction to their dad and mom. The efficient decision of this complicated is vital for the additional growth.

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There are additionally latent and genital levels. The latent stage is related to sublimating sexual instincts, and it lasts from six years until puberty. The subsequent stage is genital, and it covers adolescence and maturity, when an individual resolves the difficulty of his or her sexual id (Engler, 2014).

Psychoanalysis

  • A singular system of psychotherapy;
  • a posh and extended course of.

Goals:

  • entry the unconscious materials;
  • make it acutely aware;
  • overcome complexes, unhappy wishes or wants.

Psychoanalysts:

  • assist sufferers overcome issues;
  • develop mechanisms to handle id impulses (Burger, 2014);
  • sufferers can resist psychoanalysts’ efforts.

Freud’s psychoanalytic principle relies on a singular system of psychotherapy. The key aim of this strategy is to entry the unconscious materials and make it acutely aware with the intention to overcome complexes and issues related to unhappy wishes or wants. Psychoanalysts cooperate with sufferers to assist them overcome the revealed issues and develop the mechanisms for the ego to handle id impulses (Burger, 2014). During the remedy, a affected person can resist a psychoanalyst’s efforts due to the revealed hidden materials. Psychoanalysis is a posh and extended course of that consists of a number of remedy periods.

Tools of Psychoanalysis

  • The give attention to desires:
    • id impulses;
    • hidden wishes;
    • psychoanalysts assist decode symbols from desires (Burger, 2014).
  • Free affiliation:
    • sufferers title issues from minds with out controlling.
    • unblocks concepts repressed by the ego (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).
  • Hypnosis
    • used to bypass the ego;
    • entry the unconscious.
  • Additional instruments: projective exams, the Freudian slips, interpretation of symbols.

Freud’s psychoanalysis will depend on getting the fabric from the unconscious. In order to assist sufferers reveal their unconscious wishes and views, the theorist proposed to make use of such approaches because the give attention to desires, a free affiliation software, and hypnosis (Burger, 2014). According to Freud, desires symbolize id impulses and hidden wishes, and a psychoanalyst’s job is to assist a affected person decode symbols from desires. Free affiliation is one other method that helps a affected person say all that seems of their minds with out controlling. This method is mentioned as vital to unblock concepts repressed by the ego (Schultz & Schultz, 2016). Hypnosis can also be described as one of many instruments of psychoanalysis, and it’s used to bypass the ego and entry the unconscious. Additional instruments embrace projective exams, the Freudian slips, and the interpretation of symbols.

Projective Tests

  • measure the fabric on the unconscious stage;
  • permit sufferers to explain what they observe;
  • permit sufferers to react to supplied pictures;
  • permit for concluding concerning the unconscious (Burger, 2014);
  • the validity of those exams is questionable.

Freud proposed to measure the fabric on the unconscious stage with the assistance of projective exams. These exams permit sufferers to explain what they observe and react to the supplied pictures. As a consequence, referring to sufferers’ responses, it’s doable to conclude concerning the unconscious (Burger, 2014). In spite of the truth that the validity of those exams is questionable, they’re actively utilized by psychoanalysts.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Freud’s Theory

  • Strengths:
    • Uniqueness;
    • formality;
    • the numerous base of psychoanalytic ideas, ideas, and assumptions;
    • applicability;
    • efficient methods (Burger, 2014).
  • Weaknesses:
    • The controversial give attention to a human’s sexual nature;
    • questionable reliability and validity;
    • the hypothetical nature of some assumptions (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).

Strengths of the Freudian principle of character are its uniqueness as this principle was the primary one in all that kind; formality; the numerous base of psychoanalytic ideas, ideas, and assumptions; applicability. Today, this principle within the type of psychoanalysis is actively utilized by therapists to observe (Burger, 2014). Those methods that had been proposed by Freud are actively used even at present due to their effectiveness to give attention to sufferers’ hidden motives. Weaknesses of the speculation are related to its controversial give attention to a human’s sexual nature, questionable reliability and validity, and the hypothetical nature of some assumptions (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).

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Conclusion

  • Freud’s principle
    • Controversial;
    • provocative;
    • influenced trendy remedy;
    • supplied methods and strategies to review character and clarify its nature.
  • Freud’s contribution to psychotherapy is appreciable:
    • the theorist’s concepts are mirrored in a number of trendy works;
    • psychoanalytic approaches are utilized by practitioners.

In spite of the truth that Freud’s principle is seen as slightly controversial and provocative, its affect on remedy can hardly be overestimated. Freud drew the general public’s consideration to character and its construction. Furthermore, he proposed the speculation, methods, and strategies to review character and clarify its nature. From this level, the contribution of Freud to psychotherapy is appreciable, and his concepts are mirrored within the works of many different theorists. In addition, his psychoanalytic approaches are adopted by practitioners.

References

Burger, J. M. (2014). Personality (ninth ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Engler, B. (2014). Personality theories: An introduction (ninth ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2016). Theories of character (eleventh ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

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