Humanistic-existential psychology analyzes folks’s integrity, taking into consideration their improvement and self-realization. Every particular person is an lively and inventive being; due to this fact, detailed case evaluation is extra dependable than statistical generalizations. There are two therapeutic approaches inside the context of the humanistic-existential framework: Gestalt and logotherapy. Each of them has elementary ideas and strategies; the paper goals to match these strategies. Even although they’re labeled as one course in psychotherapy, Gestalt remedy is preferable to logotherapy. Therefore, it’s also crucial to find out their strengths and limitations, contemplating their impression on folks’s lives, psychological traumas, and advantages for practitioners.
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Logotherapy is a therapeutic strategy based mostly on an existential evaluation and the idea that the principal motivational power of an individual is that means in life. The Austrian psychiatrist, psychologist, and neurologist Viktor Frankl was the founding father of logotherapy, which appeared in the midst of the twentieth century (Costello, 2019). This strategy combines three ideas: the liberty of will, the desire to that means, and the aim of life (Shantall, 2020). The freedom of will signifies that inherent inclinations don’t outline the persona (Shantall, 2020).
Frankl argues that individuals have a self-determining half in creating their lives. The second tenet is the desire to that means, described by the necessity to discover a objective for an individual’s life (Costello, 2019). Logotherapy analyzes the existential vacuum, which may be psychologically damaging if an individual’s seek for that means is obstructed (Frankl, 2014). The third precept is the that means of life, referring to the importance of existence usually. Maturity and private improvement primarily depend upon the third tenet. Thus, logotherapy is practiced to deal with anxiousness, melancholy, neurosis, and obsessive-compulsive dysfunction.
Gestalt remedy can also be thought of one of many trendy developments in psychotherapy. The German psychiatrist Fritz Perls coined the time period “Gestalt therapy” within the late Forties (Mann, 2020). Mann (2020) defines Gestalt remedy as a relational remedy that synthesizes three ‘pillars of gestalt’ (4). The first is discipline idea; a person’s expertise is examined within the scope of present conditions (Mann, 2020). Next, it entails phenomenology, when the search is carried out by way of apparent and revealed elements as an alternative of the details interpreted by the observer (Mann, 2020). The third precept is dialogue; this type of communication helps analyze the relationships’ from the angle of a person (Mann, 2020). This strategy is extensively utilized in psychological counseling, particular person and household remedy, and enterprise consulting.
Basic Principles and Practice
The precept of the Gestalt strategy is concentrating on the present conditions and feelings. By contemplating the idea of right here and now, the shopper develops consciousness – one of many Gestalt system’s principal abilities (Mann, 2020). Here and now moments enable folks to deal with the current second and expertise slightly than decide what has prompted them to suppose a selected means (Brownell, 2019). Heightened consciousness represents the individual’s capability to pick and kind their figures of curiosity (Brownell, 2019). During the Gestalt remedy classes, the individual develops consciousness, additionally known as mindfulness (Mann, 2020). It is among the elementary ideas of the strategy as success relies on enhancing this ability. Hence, a person ought to discover ways to apply this capability in actual life after the remedy classes (Mann, 2020). Simultaneously, particular person independence can also be important as a person ought to pursue his/her targets as an alternative of specializing in different folks’s wants.
Concerning observe, the experimental strategy characterizes Gestalt remedy. According to Brownell (2019), gestalt therapists implement idea utilizing discipline technique, the aesthetic dimension, and the cycle of contact expertise. In the course of therapy, the therapist asks the shopper to arrange experiments and observe the phenomena recognized throughout the session (Brownell, 2019). For occasion, an individual can speak about previous occasions, issues, or random subjects, visualizing conditions and the corresponding conduct. Techniques embody the empty chair methodology when a person imagines that an essential individual is sitting on an empty chair subsequent to him/her and begins a dialog (Brownell, 2019). The Gestalt practitioner can intervene within the experiment by directing it, asking questions, and concentrating on essential factors.
The reactions are totally different; it may be feelings, elevating and reducing the tone, trembling, or facial expressions. The experiment additionally impacts posture, gestures, response time, and the looks of various sensations within the physique (Brownell, 2019). Responses noticed immediately throughout the observe are phenomena, even when dedicated to previous occasions (Mann, 2020). Such observe displays a principal level of Gestalt remedy of the right here and now. The strategy permits an individual to look at present emotions and ideas about previous occasions and the current second (Mann, 2020). A Gestalt framework can incorporate the experiential interventions wanted to develop self-responsibility and self-agency (Brownell, 2019). The latter is significant when it comes to inspecting the cultivating posttraumatic points (Macaluso, 2020). Overall, most individuals are likely to delve into recollections and illusions in regards to the future slightly than analyze present emotions.
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The objective of logotherapy is to advertise the event of aware duty of individuals for his or her lives. According to Frankl (2014), a human being is a creature able to making selections; an individual defines his/her life. Referring to conditions of inevitable struggling, a person has the liberty to find out find out how to take care of his/her hardship (Shantall, 2020). Such selections reveal alternatives to find that means in sickness, ache, and struggling (Frankl, 2014). The objective of life discovered by a person below difficult occasions makes such moments bearable and turns them right into a triumph of the human spirit.
In the logotherapeutic strategy, the lack of the that means of life may result in melancholy, drug habit, alcoholism, and elevated aggression. According to Frankl (2014), there are 3 ways to search out the aim of life. First, it’s the individual’s specific actions that contribute to the lifetime of society (Frankl, 2014). The second means goals to ponder artistic endeavors, nature, and connection to the sensation of affection (Frankl, 2014). The third is the seek for that means within the skilled struggling and deprivation (Frankl, 2014). Therefore, any individual can discover his/her objective in life by adopting one among these approaches.
Regarding particular strategies, there’s a paradoxical intention for the therapy of phobias and obsessive-compulsive dysfunction. Within the framework of this system, as an example, a practitioner suggests a affected person with a worry make a paradoxical try and need what he/she is most afraid of (Costello, 2019). It relieves anticipatory anxiousness and potential neuroses (Costello, 2019). Another methodology is known as deflection; it’s helpful in overcoming the obsessive tendency to self-observation (Costello, 2019). People are inspired to shift consideration from themselves to the meanings and values that they’ll embody on the planet round them.
Strengths and Limitations
Referring to those therapeutic approaches’ strengths, each of them profit the individual’s day by day life. For occasion, Gestalt professionals can point out sufferers’ development potential. Copley and Carney (2020) declare that in case of existential disaster, resulting from Gestalt strategies, purchasers could make wholesome selections and transfer ahead with reevaluated targets (Copley & Carney, 2020). Concerning logotherapy, lately, most individuals face burnout syndrome resulting from elevated work hours and social strain (Riethof & Bob, 2019). As folks search objective in life at work, the latter serves as a possible supply of their frustration and disappointment (Riethof & Bob, 2019). Consequently, logotherapy goals to make the affected person’s existence harmonious and returns the sensation of the fullness of life. Both approaches handle the twenty first century’s main problems with pursuing the targets and work setting.
Moreover, Gestalt and logotherapy convey constructive outcomes within the therapy of extreme psychological traumas. Copley and Carney (2020) argue that various cogitation patterns obtained in Gestalt remedy classes may modify attitudes in direction of life, which is essential for trauma survivors. For them, this strategy is advantageous because it helps establish the present-moment trauma patterns that negatively impression an individual’s well-being (Copley & Carney, 2020). Concerning logotherapy, it’s extensively utilized in most cancers therapy. The examine carried out by Sun et al. (2019) examines the logotherapy results on melancholy in most cancers sufferers. According to Sun et al. (2019), such an strategy can lower misery, together with lack of that means, sense of failure, and helplessness. Thus, it’s recommended to use each therapeutic practices as the first method to beat psychological issues.
Besides, Gestalt and logotherapy contribute to enhancing practitioners’ skilled abilities. The first strategy permits the specialist to evaluate the medical mannequin of reference and keep the therapy instructions (Macaluso, 2020). Logotherapy can be utilized in addressing adolescent melancholy (Baumel & Constantino, 2020). According to Baumel and Constantino (2020), this methodology is required if the standard observe is suboptimal; due to this fact, logotherapy can diminish unresolved existential considerations. Thus, logotherapy and Gestalt strategies can help specialists in enhancing look after sufferers and fixing advanced circumstances.
Both approaches have limitations; as an example, Gestalt remedy is extra advantageous for mentally wholesome folks. It turns into contraindicated for working with persona issues, extreme psychological illnesses, or psychotic situations (Brownell, 2019). Furthermore, there’s a threat in Gestalt remedy that the therapist might impose on the shopper his/her psychological well being sample (Brownell, 2019). Consequently, a false impression about regular and irregular can come up. Unlike Gestalt remedy, logotherapy can fight melancholy, phobias, neuroses, addictions, and obsessions. However, it serves as a life philosophy, so it can’t be subjected to empirical research (Costello, 2019). Some researchers declare that logotherapy is an authoritarian methodology since many Frankl adherents disagree with any extension of the strategy (Shantall, 2020). Besides, it lacks a complete system of counseling or remedy, suggesting solely logotherapeutic strategies.
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To sum up, each Gestalt and logotherapy have similarities and variations inside the context of the humanistic-existential framework. The effectiveness of logotherapy has been confirmed in disaster prevention, trauma administration, and post-crisis work. It is efficient in treating melancholy, aggression, and neuroses. Overall, the rationale why choice is given to Gestalt remedy is that it’s a common strategy. It depends on dialogue and particular person contact with the exterior setting. Its strategies enable offering help for posttraumatic syndrome and acute disaster situations; due to this fact, the shopper can create new values and adapt to modifications in life. Thus, Gestalt remedy has essentially the most elaborate philosophical base of all therapeutic approaches, characterised by its flexibility in numerous observe areas.
Baumel, W. T., & Constantino, J. N. (2020). Implementing logotherapy in its second half-Century: Incorporating existential concerns into personalised therapy of adolescent melancholy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(9), 1012-1015. Web.
Brownell, P. (2019). Handbook for idea, analysis, and observe in Gestalt remedy: The world of latest Gestalt remedy (2nd ed.), Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Copley, L., & Carney, J. (2020). Using Gestalt Techniques to Promote Meaning Making in Trauma Survivors. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 59(3), 201-218. Web.
Costello, S. J. (2019). Applied logotherapy: Viktor Frankl’s philosophical psychology. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
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Macaluso, M. A. (2020). Deliberateness and spontaneity in Gestalt remedy observe. British Gestalt Journal, 29(1), 30–36.
Mann, D. (2020). Gestalt remedy: 100 key factors and strategies. Routledge.
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Riethof, N., & Bob, P. (2019). Burnout syndrome and logotherapy: Logotherapy as helpful conceptual framework for rationalization and prevention of burnout. Frontiers In Psychiatry, 10(382), 1-8. Web.
Shantall, T. (2020). The lıfe-changıng impression of Vıktor Frankl’s logotherapy. Springer Nature.