Incident Command System in Government of the USA Research Paper

Table of Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Origin and Inception of the Incident Command System
  3. ICS Organizational Structure
  4. ICS Disaster Preparedness
  5. Conclusion
  6. References

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The administration of extremely unstable conditions that will probably result in catastrophic outcomes requires the pressing institution of high-reliability techniques and organizations. The Incident Command System (ICS) implies a administration system utilized by the federal government of the United States with the intention to set up efficient emergency response in case of pure or human-made disasters. The evaluation of the ICS elements and the system’s readiness to potential infectious outbreaks and present pandemics attributable to the coronavirus demonstrates sure vulnerabilities linked with the character of this disaster.

Origin and Inception of the Incident Command System

According to the presidential directive, the Incident Command System employed as a extremely dependable digital group is at present included by state and federal businesses into their plans of emergency response. The system is characterised by easy design, and it helps main businesses “to facilitate the integration of their assets into local emergency operations” (Bogucki & Schulz, 2015, p. 257). The ICS was elaborated to coordinate the multijurisdictional responses of a number of constructions to large-scale emergencies. It was initially designed within the United States for sensible utility by civilian emergency responders in the course of the Seventies (Bogucki & Schulz, 2015).

Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies (FIRESCOPE) was the primary interagency consultant group that developed the prototype of the ICS to remove critical administration deficiencies linked with the wildland firefighting of the state (Bogucki & Schulz, 2015). The system of FIRESCOPE was acknowledged as extremely efficient and it subsequently began for use on a nationwide scale to supply an acceptable response to emergencies of any magnitude.

ICS Organizational Structure

The efficacy of the ICS considerably is determined by the interconnection of the complicated system’s elements. The organizational construction of the Incident Command System consists of 5 main useful parts – Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance (Administration) (“Appendix B: Incident Command System,” 2008). As the system’s construction is modular and extends to include all important parts for the scale, kind, complexity, and scope of a disaster, efficiency and duty start with Command. In case of an incident, the General Staff is organized from 4 separate sections (“Appendix B: Incident Command System,” 2008).

Each part has a number of subordinate branches which may be utilized based on the incident’s necessities. If one particular person might management all predominant useful areas, an additional group shouldn’t be important.

The Operations factor is accountable for operational administration to revive regular situations, scale back the fast hazard, save human lives and property, and set up state of affairs management. In normal, incidents embrace city and wildland fires, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, terrorist assaults, war-related disasters, hazardous supplies spills, earthquakes, nuclear and plane accidents, medical and public well being emergencies, bio-terror, and pandemic outbreaks. The Planning part focuses on the gathering, analysis, and dissemination of operational data associated to an incident (“Appendix B: Incident Command System,” 2008).

This factor is accountable for the gathering and distribution of vital intelligence, forecasting administration necessities, and the incident maps’ preparation. In flip, Logistics offers all important help for incident personnel for efficient emergency response, akin to transportation, gear upkeep, provides, amenities, gasoline, meals and medical companies, communications. Finally, the Finance (Administration) part capabilities when incident administration actions require extra monetary or administrative help, as giant situations historically contain vital funding.

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ICS Disaster Preparedness

All main elements of the ICS present the algorithm of the system for environment friendly incident response. The elementary ideas of the ICS embrace frequent terminology, built-in communications, acknowledged command construction, modular group, consolidated motion plans, manageable supervisory construction, pre-designated incident amenities, and complete useful resource administration (Burgiel, 2019).

In the case of a pure catastrophe, akin to an infectious pandemic outbreak, the response of the system implies the identification of pathogenic brokers and knowledge assortment regarding the methods of illness distribution. The complete variety of contaminated residents in the meanwhile and accessible preventive measures are thought-about for the additional elaboration of an motion plan that includes the lively participation of all medical companies, quarantine measures, and drug design. There are a number of causes for infectious pandemic outbreaks, akin to viruses from invasive species or transmitted from individual to individual.

The potential vulnerabilities of the Incident Command System of the United States within the context of extreme pandemic outbreaks consist within the nature of this incident. Pandemic outbreaks are continuously characterised by violence, and illness distribution could also be so fast that emergency items perhaps not be prepared for an infinite variety of contaminated people. Moreover, in a up to date globalized world, the unfold of any an infection from individual to individual is simplified by individuals’s shifting everywhere in the world. In addition, The outcomes that decide the efficacy of the ICS response substantively rely not solely on accountable companies however on the residents’ consciousness as effectively.

The rejection of quarantine measures might considerably complicate the implementation of the emergency plan and contribute to illness distribution as effectively. The system’s vulnerabilities could also be at present noticed within the setting of a respiratory illness pandemic attributable to a brand new coronavirus. Although the federal authorities works with public well being native, state, and territorial companions to answer this critical state of affairs, the variety of morbid occasions and deaths signifies its unpreparedness to this emergency scale.


The Incident Command System is a administration program used within the United States with the intention to set up an environment friendly emergency response to pure or human-made disasters. Despite its well-defined elements, the ICS demonstrates vital vulnerabilities within the case of infectious pandemic outbreaks which are linked with the character of this catastrophe. Rapid illness distribution, the absence of acceptable drugs, and the rejection of quarantine by residents have a extremely damaging impression on the efficacy of the ICS emergency response.


Appendix B: Incident Command System. (2008). National Incident Management System. Web.

Bogucki, S., & Schulz. Ok. J. (2015). Incident command system and National Incident Management System. In D. C. Cone, J. H. Brice, T. R. Delbridge, & J. B. Myers (Eds.), Emergency medical companies: Clinical apply and techniques oversight (2nd ed.) (pp. 257-263). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Burgiel, S. W. (2019). The incident command system: A framework for fast response to organic invasion. Biological Invasions, 22(1), 155-165. Web.

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