Influenza Preparedness Among Public Housing Residents and Low-income Population Presentation

This presentation covers totally different elements of influenza preparedness. It describes the illness, susceptible populations, and the way communities can defend themselves from it.

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  • This paper explores influenza preparedness amongst public housing residents and low revenue communities.
  • Public housing residents and low revenue populations usually report unfavourable well being outcomes.
  • Preparedness for influenza must happen at private, coverage and group ranges.

In abstract, this paper highlights the multi-level methods that communities may use to handle and put together for influenza.

Learning Outcomes

  • Formulating culturally competent preparedness and response interventions that tackle particular wants of public housing residents and low-income inhabitants teams.
  • Improving public well being and group well being preparedness towards influenza.
  • Improving multi-level preparedness towards influenza.

At the top of this presentation, we should always study the significance of selling socially competent well being care interventions for stopping influenza. This purpose ought to assist to enhance the general public well being and group well being preparedness towards the pandemic.


  • Pandemic Influenza is a critical well being concern (Ostrem and Horsburgh, 2008).
  • It may cause loss of life and everlasting well being injury.
  • Vulnerable populations are most susceptible to the illness.
  • This paper investigates how low-income populations and folks dwelling in housing tasks may put together and reply to the pandemic.

Pandemic influenza impacts several types of folks. However, this paper primarily focuses on how low-income teams and inhabitants of housing tasks may put together and reply to the illness.

What is Influenza?

  • Influenza is a respiratory tract an infection.
  • Complicated circumstances of influenza could trigger pneumonia and different sophisticated well being points (Osterholm, 2005).
  • Pandemic influenza could also be extreme and have an effect on many individuals, versus seasonal influenza (Osha, 2009).

Before embarking on the main points of this presentation, it is very important perceive influenza as a respiratory tract an infection that requires instant therapy. Unlike seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza is extra harmful to human beings.

Factors Influencing Vulnerability To Pandemic Influenza

  • Poverty.
  • Inequities in Health Status.
  • Access to Quality of Care.
  • Limited Supply to Vaccines.
  • Low Immunization Rates.
  • Environmental Factors (Krieger, Chen, Rehkopf, Subramanian, 2005).

Pandemic influenza happens due to poverty, inequities in well being standing, poor entry to high quality well being care, and low immunization charges amongst different elements.

Types of Virus

  • Influenza virus A.
  • Influenza virus B.
  • Influenza virus C.

There are solely three sorts of influenza as proven on this slide. Types B and C don’t trigger pandemics, however kind A does.

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Influenza Transmission

  • Influenza is airborne as a result of it’s transferred via coughs and sneezes.
  • Influenza will also be transmitted via contact with contaminated surfaces and fowl droppings.
  • Airborne aerosols trigger probably the most infections (Compans and Orenstein, 2009).

Pandemic influenza spreads quick as a result of it’s airborne. Airborne aerosols trigger probably the most infections to human societies.

Why Focus on Public Housing People?

  • The US Department of Housing and Urban improvement funds working procedures of greater than 3.4 million public homes (Bouye et al., 2009).
  • There are about 1.5 million folks dwelling in these public homes and most of them have low-incomes.
  • They reside in congested areas.

Inhabitants of public housing are extra susceptible to pandemic influenza as a result of they kind a major proportion of the US inhabitants that lives in abject poverty and reside in congested areas. These dynamics assist the unfold of the illness.

Why Focus on Low-Income People?

  • Low-Income folks usually juggle a number of jobs and will skip vaccination due to restricted time (Rocheleau, 2013).
  • Low-income folks may keep away from looking for well being care due to demanding work schedules.
  • Low-income folks reside in congested areas that always result in the sooner unfold of influenza.

Similar to inhabitants of public housing, low-income folks usually have a number of jobs that both forestall them from looking for high quality well being care therapy, or influenza vaccinations.

Address to the Public How to Care for People with influenza

  • Keep a care log.
  • Keep the affected person rested.
  • Keep tissues and trash bag near the affected person.
  • Use ibuprofen or acetaminophen or different measures, as really helpful by your healthcare supplier.
  • Make positive affected person doesn’t drink and smoke (CDC, 2008).
  • Give affected person loads of fluids.
  • Do not use aspirin as a result of it could trigger the Reye syndrome or a life-threatening sickness.
  • Watch out for indicators of dehydration.
  • Watch out for issues of influenza (Meltzer, 2008).

It is vital for the general public to guard themselves from influenza. However, once they should deal with contaminated folks, they should perceive methods to preserve a care log, preserve the affected person rested, and ensure the affected person doesn’t drink or smoke. These measures assist to handle the illness and decrease its unfold.

Since many influenza sufferers vomit, folks ought to give them loads of water and be careful for indicators of dehydration. Care givers also needs to chorus from administering different medication, similar to aspirin, as a result of they could trigger new well being issues.

Address to Public Housing Residents

Residents of public housing must be extra involved about influenza as a result of they reside in crowded locations, they undergo from persistent well being circumstances that might have an effect on their immune programs, they undergo from extreme psychological well being circumstances (in comparison with the overall inhabitants) that might have an effect on their therapy, and should not search care till they’re very sick (Armstrong, Berlin, Schwartz, Propert, Ubel, 2001).

Inhabitants of public homes are sometimes susceptible to influenza as a result of they reside in unfavorable circumstances which will assist the unfold of influenza. For instance, most public housing tasks are overcrowded, thereby supporting the unfold of influenza. Similarly, private well being elements, similar to antagonistic psychological well being circumstances and the predisposition to emphasize elements additionally make them susceptible to influenza.

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Address to Low-Income Populations

  • Develop household and private preparedness plan.
  • Attend well being training coaching applications.
  • Stockpile provides.
  • Refine private an infection management insurance policies.
  • Put hand sanitizers in conspicuous locations.
  • Forge essential partnerships with well being companies.

Low-income populations must take correct care to forestall themselves from influenza as a result of they’re extra susceptible to the illness, in comparison with folks from different revenue teams. In this regard, they should develop their household preparedness plans, attend well being training coaching applications, and forge essential partnerships with well being companies. Personally, they should inventory emergency provides, refine private an infection management insurance policies, and put hand sanitizers in conspicuous locations. These measures would enhance their preparedness to influenza.

Address to Low-Income Populations (What Everyone within the House can do)

  • Wash fingers with cleaning soap and water.
  • Do not contact fingers, nostril, or mouth with out washing fingers first.
  • Wash dirty utensils with sizzling water (utilizing fingers or dishwasher).
  • Wash Clothes in a typical washer with chilly or sizzling water.
  • Clean house surfaces usually.

Most measures for stopping influenza ought to contain all members of the home. They embrace private hygiene elements similar to washing fingers with cleaning soap, refraining from touchin contaminated surfaces, washing garments in commonplace washing machines, and cleansing family surfaces usually.

Address to Policy Makers

  • Make influenza vaccinations obligatory for folks in public housing tasks.
  • Vaccinate farm poultry to cut back an infection charges.
  • Increase channels of communication between group members and healthcare service suppliers (Blumenshine et al., 2008).

Policy makers ought to be sure they assist the efforts of well being care staff by introducing legislations that make vaccination obligatory for inhabitants of public housing tasks and low revenue teams. They also needs to stretch the identical coverage to incorporate all poultry. Lastly, they should create legislative measures that enhance the channels of communication between communities and well being staff.

Role of Department of Health

  • Disease surveillance and reporting.
  • Case Investigation and Management.
  • Identification of influenza circumstances and following up on troubled people.
  • Health danger evaluation and communications.
  • Liaison with different stakeholders within the well being sector.
  • Vaccine distribution (Stoto, 2008).

The Department of Health performs a very powerful position in influenza preparedness. It ought to conduct illness surveillance and reporting, examine infections, assess well being dangers to human populations, distribute vaccines and supply suggestions for stopping future infections.

Community Interventions

  • Voluntary isolation and therapy of sick individuals.
  • Asking family members of sick individuals to remain at house (quarantine).
  • Limiting or prohibiting massive public gatherings.
  • Voluntary social distancing.

Communities are vital stakeholders in influenza preparedness and response. People must be keen to isolate sick folks (voluntarily), restrict massive public gatherings, and apply social distancing. These measures would restrict the unfold of the pandemic, if it happens.

Issues Requiring Further Community-Level Planning

  • Additional coaching alternatives between communities and well being staff.
  • Increased communication networks.
  • Assign designated areas for sick folks (Seattle Public Health County, 2006).

Since community-level planning is broad, there must be broader efforts to extend communication between group members and well being care staff, create extra coaching alternatives between group members and well being care staff, and assign designated areas for sick folks.

Interventions for the Department of Housing and Urban Development

  • Increase home spacing to lower congestion.
  • Provide correct drainage in housing tasks to enhance sanitation.
  • Improve air flow in housing tasks.
  • Provide correct waste disposal mechanisms (Steinhardt , 2010).

The Department of Housing and Urban improvement wants to cut back the incidence of influenza amongst inhabitants of public housing by growing home spacing (to lower congestion), offering correct drainage, enhancing air flow, and offering correct waste disposal mechanisms. These measures would enhance the dwelling circumstances of public housing residents.

General Recommendations

  • Community mobilization and partnerships.
  • Culturally particular emergency communications planning.
  • Culturally particular training and coaching applications.
  • Evidence-based measurement and analysis efforts.
  • Strategic planning insurance policies.
  • Inclusion of group members as companions.
  • Policy and program modifications to attenuate morbidity and mortality (Holmberg, Layton, Ghneim, Wagener, 2006).

All well being, group, and coverage stakeholders must take a proactive method to arrange and reply to an influenza pandemic. Such measures want to incorporate a concerted effort to create strategic planning insurance policies, introduce coverage modifications to attenuate morbidity and mortality, forge group mobilization and partnerships, and create culturally-specific emergency communication and planning.

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  • The studying outcomes of the paper aimed to coach the general public about influenza as a public well being concern and formulate culturally competent preparedness and response interventions that tackle particular wants of public housing residents and low-income inhabitants teams.
  • The paper lined key areas of influenza preparedness together with describing the character of influenza, susceptible populations, and attainable interventions for enhancing group preparedness.
  • This paper finds that low revenue populations and folks dwelling in housing tasks are susceptible to pandemic influenza.
  • There must be a multifaceted method to forestall influenza.
  • The multifaceted method ought to embrace communities, coverage makers, people, and the Department of Public Health.

Preparing and responding to an influenza pandemic requires folks to make knowledgeable decisions relating to methods to handle susceptible populations and methods to present culturally-specific interventions for curbing the pandemic. This paper proposes the introduction of a multifaceted method for doing so. It ought to embrace key stakeholders, similar to communities, coverage makers, people, and the Department of Public Health.


  • What is Influenza?
  • What is the distinction between seasonal and pandemic influenza?
  • What are some really helpful methods for shielding communities towards influenza?
  • How can communities decrease influenza transmission?

These questions purpose to implement the training outcomes of this paper. They cowl vital areas of influenza preparedness and administration.


Armstrong, Okay., Berlin, M., Schwartz, J. S., Propert, Okay., Ubel, P. A. (2001). Barriers to influenza immunization in a low-income city inhabitants. Am J Prev Med, 20(1), 21โ€“25.

Blumenshine, P., Reingold, A., Egerter, S., Mockenhaupt, R., Braveman, P., Marks, J. (2008). Pandemic influenza planning within the United States from a well being disparities perspective. Emerg Infec Dis, 14(5), 709โ€“715.

Bouye, Okay., Truman, B., Hutchins, S., Richard, R., Brown, C., Guillory, J. (2009). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Among Public-Housing Residents, Single-Parent Families, and Low-Income Populations. American Journal of Public Health, 99(2), 287-293.

CDC. (2008). Interim steering on planning for using surgical masks and respirators in well being care settings throughout an influenza pandemic. Web.

Compans, R., & Orenstein, W. (2009). Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.

Holmberg, S., Layton, C., Ghneim, G., & Wagener, D. (2006). State plans for containment of pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis, 12(9), 1414โ€“1417.

Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Rehkopf, D. H., & Subramanian, S. V. (2005). Painting a more true image of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic well being inequalities: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health, 95(1), 312โ€“323.

Meltzer, M. (2008). Pandemic influenza, reopening faculties, and returning to work. Emerg Infect Dis, 14(3), 509โ€“510.

Osha. (2009). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Guidance for Healthcare Workers and Healthcare Employers. Web.

Osterholm, M. (2005). Preparing for the following pandemic. N Engl J Med, 352(18), 1839โ€“1842.

Ostrem, M., & Horsburgh, C. R. (2008). Use of a population-based survey to explain the well being of Boston public housing residents. Am J Public Health, 98(1), 85โ€“91.

Rocheleau, M. (2013). Bostonโ€™s lower-income areas bear brunt of flu. Web.

Seattle Public Health County. (2006). An Influenza Pandemic Planning Guide for Homeless and Housing Service Providers. Web.

Steinhardt , B. (2010). Influenza Pandemic: Greater Agency Accountability Needed to Protect Federal Workers within the Event of a Pandemic: Congressional Testimony. New York, NY: DIANE Publishing.

Stoto, M. A. (2008). Regionalization in native public well being programs: variation in rationale, implementation, and affect on public well being preparedness. Public Health Rep, 123(4), 441-449.

Additional Reading

Vaughn, E., & Tinker T. (2009). Effective well being danger communication about pandemic influenza for susceptible populations. Am J Public Health, 99(2),324โ€“S332.

World Health Organization. (2008). Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Mitigation in Refugee and Displaced Populations. Web.

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