Lecithin, Trimethylamine Oxide, and Heart Diseases Presentation

Introduction

  • Heart illnesses are deadly and so they trigger important variety of deaths within the inhabitants;
  • The nature of dietary fat decide predisposition to coronary heart illnesses;
  • Lecithin is a dietary phospholipid that’s related cardiovascular illnesses;
  • Trimethylamine oxide is a metabolite of lecithin that causes coronary heart illnesses.

Heart illnesses contribute considerably to the growing mortality charges the world over. According to Szuchaj and Nieuwenhyse (2003), coronary heart illnesses accounts for “approximately 42% of all deaths in the United States” per yr (p. 117). Nutrition is a vital determinant of the character of coronary heart illnesses in a given inhabitants. The varieties of fat that one consumes in weight loss program decide predisposition to coronary heart illnesses. Taking a low content material of saturated fat and ldl cholesterol lowers the dangers of coronary heart illnesses similar to atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart assault, coronary heart failure, and stroke. Owing to altering consuming existence, individuals have elevated their fats consumption whereas lowering their bodily exercise, which consequently result in the event of coronary heart illnesses. Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is a dietary phospholipid that analysis has proven to affiliate with the incidence of cardiovascular illnesses within the inhabitants (Wang et al., 2011). The metabolism of the phosphatidylcholine by intestine flora ends in manufacturing of choline, betaine, and trimethylamine oxide, which predisposes a person to cardiovascular illnesses.

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Lecithin

  • It is a posh phospholipid that has phosphoric acid, fatty acids, choline, glycerol, and glycolipids;
  • It is a structural element of cell membranes in each animal and vegetation;
  • It mediates transport and metabolism of lipids within the physique;
  • It is used for medicine functions;
  • It is a strong emulsifying issue that enhances metabolism of ldl cholesterol within the physique.

Lecithin is a posh phospholipid that has phosphoric acid, fatty acids, choline, glycerol, and glycolipids amongst different elements which can be widespread in phospholipids. It is a structural element of cell membranes in each animal and plant cells. Given that ldl cholesterol is a phospholipid, it aids within the formation of lipoproteins that transport ldl cholesterol within the physique. Administration of lecithin has enabled sufferers with cardiovascular illnesses to scale back low density lipoprotein and enhance excessive density ldl cholesterol, thus lowering the incidence of coronary heart assaults (Szuchaj & Nieuwenhyse, 2003). The elements of lecithin make it to be a strong emulsifying issue that enhances metabolism of ldl cholesterol within the physique. Biochemically, lecithin is an important compound as a result of it mediates transport and metabolism of lipids within the physique.

Conversion of Lecithin to Trimethylamine Oxide

  • Dietary lecithin is current in eggs and meat;
  • Intestinal enzymes act on lecithin and produce choline and phospholipid moieties;
  • Gut flora metabolize choline within the giant intestines into trimethylamine;
  • In the liver, flavin-containing monooxygenase converts trimethylamine into trimethylamine oxide.

Dietary lecithin is the one that’s accountable for the manufacturing of trimethylamine oxide. When an individual feeds on a weight loss program that incorporates lecithin, digestion within the abdomen outcomes into manufacturing of choline and phospholipid moieties of the lecithin. The quantity of lecithin within the weight loss program is proportional to the quantity of choline that the intestines soak up following digestion. Tang et al. (2013) state that intestinal flora convert choline, a product of the lecithin digestion, into trimethylamine, which is additional transformed to trimethylamine oxide by flavin-containing monooxygenase within the liver.

Gut Flora

Metabolism Process

Trimethylamine Oxide and Heart Diseases

Atherosclerosis

  • Commonly brought on by the buildup of ldl cholesterol and triglycerides within the blood vessels;
  • The incidence of atherosclerosis correlates with the degrees of trimethylamine oxide within the physique;
  • Expression of the hepatic flavin-monooxygenase additionally correlate with atherosclerosis;
  • Betaine causes atherosclerosis by regulating gene expression by way of methylation mechanism.

Atherosclerosis is a typical coronary heart illness brought on by the buildup of ldl cholesterol and triglycerides within the blood vessels, thus lowering free movement of blood within the physique. A examine performed utilizing mice signifies that the incidence of atherosclerosis correlates with the degrees of trimethylamine oxide within the physique (Loscalzo, 2011). Such correlation signifies that trimethylamine oxide has causal relationships with atherosclerosis. The expression of the hepatic flavin monooxygenase has been thought to extend the chance of atherosclerosis. According to Loscalzo (2011), “hepatic flavin monooxygenase transcript levels were shown to correlate with the extent of atheroma in mice,” (p. 128). The correlation of the monooxygenase and atheroma offers some proof of the influence of the enzyme expression on the incidence of atherosclerosis amongst people. Loscalzo (2011) explains that betaine participate within the methylation cycle because it serves instead methyl supply for methylating homocysteine to methionine by way of built-in: homocysteine methyltransferase” (p. 128). Through methylation reactions, betaine influences gene regulation.

Atherosclerosis

Heart Attack and Stroke

  • Caused by blockage of blood vessels that provide blood to the guts;
  • The degree of trimethylamine oxide within the blood is proportional to the chance of coronary heart assault;
  • Consumption of eggs will increase the degrees of trimethylamine oxide in blood;
  • Stroke correlates with the degrees of trimethylamine oxide within the blood.

The coronary heart assault is a coronary heart illness that happens as a consequence of blockage of blood vessels that provide blood to the guts. Coronary artery and vein are the foremost blood vessels the place the blockage happens, thus affecting the availability of blood and oxygen to the guts. A examine achieved to look at the causes of coronary heart assault amongst sufferers with cardiovascular problems reveals that the extent of trimethylamine oxide within the blood is proportional to the chance of coronary heart assault (Wang et al., 2011). Hence, trimethylamine oxide is a danger issue of coronary heart assault within the inhabitants. In a potential examine of three years, the examine revealed that consumption of eggs elevated trimethylamine oxide ranges in blood and elevated the development of coronary heart assault amongst 4007 members who suffered from varied cardiovascular illnesses (Tang et al., 2013). Hence, the findings assist the assertion that trimethylamine oxide causes coronary heart assault. Additionally, a physique of proof reveals that there’s a important correlation between trimethylamine ranges within the blood and the incidence of the stroke within the inhabitants (Loscalzo, 2011). In this view, trimethylamine oxide is a danger issue that contributes to the incidence of stroke within the inhabitants.

Stroke

Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Trimethylamine oxide will increase the chance coronary artery illness;
  • Trimethylamine correlates with the development of coronary artery illness;
  • Administration of antibiotics considerably reduces the extent of trimethylamine oxide;
  • Trimethylamine oxide will increase expression of scavenger receptors related to atherosclerosis.

Ample proof signifies that trimethylamine oxide will increase the chance of cardiovascular illnesses similar to coronary artery illness amongst people. A potential examine carried out to find out the influence of choline metabolism on the development of the coronary artery illness indicated that the sufferers with excessive ranges of trimethylamine oxide had elevated development of coronary artery illness than those that have low ranges of trimethylamine oxide (Tanga et al., 2013). In the examine, when members consumed boiled eggs, earlier than and after taking antibiotics to kill intestine flora, there was important variations within the ranges within the ranges of trimethylamine oxide within the physique. According to Tanga et al. (2013), “plasma levels of the trimethylamine oxide were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and the reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics” (p. 1575). The marked distinction in trimethylamine oxide reveals that the metabolism of lecithin is a major danger issue of coronary artery illness. Wang et al. (2011) additional asserts that, “dietary supplementation of mice with choline, trimethylamine oxide or betaine promoted upregulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or trimethylamine oxide promoted atherosclerosis” (p. 57). Hence, the elevated expression of the scavenger receptors in blood vessels causes atherosclerosis and different cardiovascular problems that lead into dying.

Coronary Artery Disease

Prediction of Heart Diseases

  • The ranges of trimethylamine oxide in blood and urine point out the extent of danger for coronary heart illnesses;
  • Avoiding meals wealthy in lecithin will help in discount trimethylamine oxide in blood;
  • Use of antibiotics can even cut back the extent of trimethylamine oxide in physique.

Given that intestine flora metabolize lecithin into trimethylamine, which the liver consequently metabolizes into trimethylamine oxide, measuring the degrees of those metabolic merchandise within the blood and urine can point out the extent of coronary heart illness danger in an individual. The ranges of trimethylamine oxide within the physique poses a major danger of coronary heart illnesses as a result of it causes atherosclerosis in blood vessels, which consequently results in coronary heart assault, stroke, coronary coronary heart illness and different cardiovascular illnesses that usually result in dying (Tanga et al., 2013). By analyzing the degrees of trimethylamine oxide within the physique, medical docs, or nutritionists can advise people concerning the nature of the weight loss program or antibiotics that’s obligatory to scale back the quantity of trimethylamine oxide, and reduce the chance of coronary heart illnesses. Moreover, since intestine flora metabolizes lecithin, management of their inhabitants within the intestine by use of antibiotics is an efficient technique of lowering trimethylamine oxide within the physique of a person who feeds on eggs and meat, the animal merchandise which have lecithin.

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Conclusion

  • The nature of vitamin determines predisposition to cardiovascular illnesses;
  • Dietary lecithin is a phospholipid that’s current in eggs and meat;
  • Metabolism of lecithin by intestine flora and liver monooxygenase outcomes into trimethylamine oxide;
  • Trimethylamine oxide causes atherosclerosis;
  • Atherosclerosis consequently causes coronary heart assault, stroke, coronary coronary heart illness and different cardiovascular problems.

Heart illnesses are growing within the inhabitants because of the change in existence. The nature of vitamin that individuals eat is a figuring out issue of cardiovascular illnesses. Cholesterol and triglycerides are typical causes of cardiovascular illnesses; nonetheless, new proof means that metabolites of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) contribute to the incidence of cardiovascular illnesses. Gut flora often metabolize lecithin into trimethylamine, which the liver enzymes metabolize additional into trimethylamine oxide. Trimethylamine oxide causes atherosclerosis in blood vessels. The atherosclerosis consequently causes coronary artery illness, coronary heart assault, stroke, and different cardiovascular illnesses by blocking the blood vessels. Poor movement of blood and inadequate provide of oxygen as a consequence of blockage of blood vessels pose critical well being penalties. Hence, regulation of trimethylamine oxide utilizing weight loss program and antibiotics is crucial within the prevention and administration of cardiovascular problems.

References

Craciun, S., & Balskus, E. (2012). Microbial conversion of choline to trimethylamine requires a glycyl radical enzyme. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(52), 21307-21312.

Loscalzo, J. (2011). Lipid metabolism by intestine microbes and atherosclerosis. Circulation Research, 109(2), 127-129.

Szuchaj, B., & Nieuwenhyse, W. (2003). Nutrition and biochemistry of phospholipids. New York: The American Oil Chemists Society.

Tang, et al. (2013). Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular danger. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(17), 1575-1584.

Wang, et al. (2011). Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes heart problems. Nature, 472(7341), 57-63.

Zeisel, S., Dacosta, Okay, Youssef, M., & Hensey, S. (1989). Conversion of dietary choline to trimethylamine and dimethylamine in rats: Dose-response relationships. Journal of Nutrition, 119(4), 800-804.

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