Marijuana Use amongst American and Bolivian Students Research Paper

The article A Comparison of Four General Theories of Crime and Deviance: Marijuana Use amongst American and Bolivian University Students by Meneses and Akers (2011) makes use of theoretical ideas to research deviant conduct in several societies. As Kjellström and Stålne (2017) observes, conduct of youngsters is usually outlined by the socio-economic and political forces inside their atmosphere. The United States and Europe have completely different financial, political, and social constructions from that within the creating nations resembling these in South America. The two researchers had been considering figuring out whether or not a number of the behavioral theories can be utilized to clarify crime and deviance in the same means when socio-economic and political methods fluctuate. They centered on making use of 4 theories (General Strain, Social Bonding, Self-Control, and Social Learning) to clarify marijuana use each within the United States and Latin America universities.

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Determining if the Study is an Example of the Use of Theory in Research

The examine is an ideal instance of the usage of idea in a analysis. According to Corsini et al. (2019), students usually use idea to clarify a conduct of a phenomenon in a given setting. Sometimes the examine could give attention to confirming the applicability of a given idea inside a selected setting. This examine centered on explaining the applicability of particular theories in explaining a given phenomenon in several setting. The use of marijuana is a typical deviant conduct in lots of schools around the globe. However, the socio-cultural system within the United States is completely different from that in Latin America. American faculty college students face challenges and points which might be considerably completely different from what Bolivian faculty college students undergo. However, the usage of marijuana is a typical observe amongst these learners.

The examine revealed that though the atmosphere is completely different for these learners, these theories might be utilized to clarify their conduct. The authors had been in a position to show {that a} idea resembling social studying might be utilized in several social settings. As such, it’s doable for school college students in Bolivia to have the same deviant conduct, which on this case is the usage of marijuana, to these within the United States though each are uncovered to completely different socio-economic and political atmosphere. The authors performed an in depth evaluation of the appliance of the theories in these settings and concluded that behavioral forces that have an effect on learners could also be completely different, however they’ll simply take the same strategy to participating unacceptable actions. For occasion, they confirmed that peer-pressure was a typical phenomenon amongst learners no matter the society wherein they reside.

How the Authors Differentiate Among the Theories Used in Their Study

The authors have efficiently differentiated the 4 theories used of their examine by way of their utility. They began by defining every of the theories and the way they are often utilized. For occasion, social studying as a idea differs from social bonding. The first one focuses on the method of buying new data throughout the atmosphere that one is uncovered to whereas the second focuses on the need and energy that one makes to create buddies (Corsini et al., 2019). When the authors had been making use of these theories to research the conduct of faculty college students within the United States and people in Bolivia, the distinction got here out clearly. It was evident that these theories had been distinct from each other. One can not apply basic pressure idea in the identical means as self-control idea. Some of them could also be associated, however one has to grasp their various ideas. The authors proved that the 4 theories are distinct, however they are often universally utilized throughout completely different settings. For occasion, social bonding idea was used to clarify how faculty college students within the two nations would develop new buddies. The fixed need to be accepted and admired by peer made a few of them have interaction in deviant actions, typically in opposition to their want. Some of those college students defined that they began utilizing marijuana as a result of they wished to look cool amongst their buddies.

Analysis of Theories within the Article

The use of theories on this article has helped to clarify why the usage of marijuana is frequent amongst faculty college students in each North America and Latin America. It is anticipated that the distinction in socio-economic and political atmosphere would inspire completely different deviant conduct amongst learners. However, it grew to become obvious that irrespective of those elements, the need of faculty college students is sort of common. The cause why the observe is frequent in Africa, the Americas, Europe, and Asia-Pacific was successfully demonstrated by the 4 theories.

The Relationship between Problem and Theory

The article has clearly demonstrated the connection that exists between a selected drawback (marijuana use amongst faculty college students) and completely different theories. When utilizing the speculation of social bonding, the researcher was in a position to clarify how the issue develops. It begins with the sturdy need for one to be accepted amongst friends. As such, one would attempt to do what they imagine others admire with out contemplating the potential penalties. Others are pushed into deviancy by social stress. The need to please others in order that they’ll have the bond they need forces them to make use of marijuana. It doesn’t matter whether or not one is from a wealthy or poor background. The stage of financial, social, and political improvement could not matter a lot as effectively when a university pupil is on the lookout for consideration of the friends. The idea articulates how the issue can escalate if one has no self-control and there’s no one to information the scholars away from deviancy (Meneses & Akers, 2011). These theories may help to find a means of fixing these issues. By explaining the genesis and progress of an issue, it turns into doable to discover a means of fixing them earlier than they worsen. A pupil might be helped to beat drug dependancy if their use of marijuana is arrested earlier than utilizing it for lengthy.

How Theory Informs Research Methodology

The 4 theories mentioned on this article may help inform analysis methodology. According to Kjellström and Stålne (2017), when defining the methodology essential to conduct a given analysis, a given theoretical idea could assist in defining the suitable strategy. For occasion, self-control idea of crime explains how one’s lack of self-control can lead them into committing against the law (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). The majority of scholars who use marijuana know that the observe is just not solely unlawful but additionally detrimental to their well being and future socio-economic improvement. Using this idea, a researcher can simply perceive that essentially the most acceptable methodology can be qualitative evaluation to grasp why one would do one thing that they know could also be harmful. Of curiosity in such a examine could also be to grasp why the urge to commit against the law is so sturdy that one fails to manage self. Using the speculation as a information, one can decide the suitable technique of amassing and analyzing information that might most successfully reply the basic query within the examine.

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Reasons Why Hot Topics Hook the Reader and the Use of Variables within the Study

Hot matters are likely to hook readers due to the curiosity that they generate. Drug abuse is one such subject that has been attracting the eye of many individuals around the globe (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). There is a necessity to grasp why marijuana use is so frequent in lots of schools so {that a} correct resolution might be developed to handle it. The impact of drug abuse is extensively documented, and it will be anticipated that these learners would keep away from its use as a lot as doable as a means of defending their well being and future. However, a big quantity find yourself risking going to jail through the use of and distributing the drug. The consideration that they appeal to is geared in the direction of fixing a typical drawback throughout the society. It is essential to notice that Meneses and Akers (2011) used numerous variables within the examine. Marijuana use, which is taken into account a deviant conduct, was the dependent variable within the examine. The unbiased variables included peer stress, financial challenges, household issues, and accessibility of the drug inside these studying establishments.

Comparing Authors’ Use of Theory in This Study and How Other Authors May Use a Theoretical Base to Guide Their Studies

The strategy that Meneses and Akers (2011) use self-control idea is considerably completely different from the strategy that Gillebaart (2018) makes use of the identical idea due to the distinction in context. Meneses and Akers (2011) give attention to explaining why faculty college students in each Latin America and the United States are unable to train self-constraint and keep away from deviant conduct. On the opposite hand, Gillebaart (2018) makes use of the identical idea to clarify methods to combat basic crime throughout the society. However, you will need to word that regardless of this distinction within the utility of the theories, there are some similarities value noting. In each instances, the main focus of the authors is to advertise a society the place folks perceive and recognize the importance of self-control. The use of marijuana could probably lead one to commit basic crime within the society. As one will get addicted, the necessity to buy extra doses of marijuana grows. If the cash can not come from the mum or dad, such a pupil can be compelled to get into legal actions to satisfy their monetary wants. As such, addressing marijuana use amongst faculty college students could assist cut back crime ranges within the society.


The article mentioned above focuses on a elementary situation that impacts most college students each within the developed and creating worlds. The authors used 4 theories to clarify marijuana person amongst these learners. It was evident that no matter the society wherein a toddler is introduced up, causes of marijuana use was frequent. Factors resembling household challenges, lack of consideration from dad and mom, and peer stress has nothing to do with the extent of financial stability. A baby from a poor household could lack consideration from dad and mom who’re continually away, attempting to make ends meet. On the opposite hand, a toddler from a wealthy household could lack the identical consideration as a result of dad and mom are at all times away on enterprise engagements. As such, a common resolution might be developed for such an issue.


Corsini, F., Laurenti, R., Meinherz, F., Appio, F., & Mora, L. (2019). The creation of observe theories in analysis on sustainable consumption: Past, present and future instructions of the sector. Sustainability, 11(341), 1-19.

Creswell, J., & Creswell, D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and blended strategies approaches (5th ed.). Sage Publications.

Gillebaart, M. (2018). The ‘operational’ definition of self-control. Perspective, 4(1), 1-5.

Kjellström, S., & Stålne, Okay. (2017). Adult improvement as a lens: Applications of grownup improvement theories in analysis. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 22(2), 266–278.

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Meneses, R. A., & Akers, R. (2011). A comparability of 4 basic theories of crime and deviance: Marijuana use amongst American and Bolivian college college students. International Criminal Justice Review, 21(4), 333-352.

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