Pentecostalism/Evangelicalism in Politics Annotated Bibliography

Burity, J. A., & Santana, F. (2016). Minoritization and pluralization: What are the “people” that pentecostal politicization is constructing? Latin American Perspectives, 43(3), 116-132.

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The article examines the rise of charismatic Pentecostalism in Brazil calling for human rights and its implication for church-state separation, sociopolitical pluralization, and the Pentecostals’ minority standing. With a discourse based mostly on perceived exclusion by the Brazilian political elite, the Pentecostal individuals distinguished themselves as politicized minorities. Based on 55 interviews of church leaders, the authors argue that Pentecostals battle with competing pursuits of being separate from the world (an impartial voice) and interesting in dialogue with secular actors within the context of accelerating pluralization (Burity & Santana, 2016).

This open versus closed imaginative and prescient comes from the must be self-assertive and reply to modern opposing views. The unintended end result has been the blurring of the excellence between the sacrosanct and depraved or spiritual and secular in Pentecostalism’s conquest of the Brazilian inhabitants. The article concludes that this relational context has the potential of minoritizing the pluralistic and populist democratic follow.

Costa, L. M. & Ferreira, S. J. H. (2016). The conservative response in Brazil: The pendulum has swung to the correct on the earth situation. World Affairs: The Journal of International Issues, 20(2), 152-168.

The article reveals that capitalistic and evangelical practices have had a unfavorable impression on world financial coverage. Post-neoliberalism has deepened socioeconomic disparities, elevated unemployment, and decreased alternatives for social motion. The central argument is that the philosophy of individualism based mostly on the prosperity doctrine (Pentecostalism) and entrepreneurial mindset (capitalism) has crept into the dominant discourse and created a heterogeneous working class and fragmented labor actions. The end result has been elevated competitors and isolation, diminished solidarity for collective motion, and relapse to conservative concepts.

Bolstered by Pentecostal actions, official insurance policies now mirror the normal right-wing values in international locations resembling Brazil that had embraced fashionable liberalism. In Europe and South America, a shift to proper wing politics to take care of financial challenges and consolidate help for populist rhetoric is obvious. Coupled with structural points limiting legislature-executive collaboration (for Brazil), this various, right-wing populism has solely deepened the disaster, triggered violence, and elevated oppression and disparities.

de Santibañes, F. (2020). Popular conservatism rising in Latin America. Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 15, 220-233.

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The article explores the rise of a political motion (in style conservatism) in Latin America, its impression on politics and society, and associated challenges. Its foremost declare is that in style conservatives in contrast to their conventional counterparts are likely to undertake a extra assertive (or violent) discourse, oppose the ruling elite, and advance a extra direct sort of democracy (de Santibañes, 2020). Conservative populist leaders, together with Netanyahu, Trump, Putin, and Bolsonaro, in addition to political occasions resembling Brexit, illustrate the rising reputation of traditionalist and nationalist views. The writer argues that this development signifies the top of a liberal order that favored labor mobility, globalization, and minority rights.

In Latin America, Bolsonaro’s nationalistic strategy to corruption or the Amazon situation has help from the spiritual establishments (largely evangelicals), agribusinesses, and the army disgruntled with liberal elites’ failure to satisfy individuals’s financial or safety expectations. However, three risks lie forward of this new phenomenon: weaker multilateral relations, the rise of an omnipotent state, and disappearance of liberal elites.

Maxwell, Ok. (1999). The two Brazils. The Wilson Quarterly, 23(1), 50-60.

The article delves into Brazil’s political and financial insurance policies (the Real Plan) that accompanied neoliberalism within the Nineteen Nineties. The neoliberal ideology adopted introduced prosperity for all however the Real Plan would plunge the nation right into a recession, occasioning mass layoffs and forcing the then president, Fernando Cordoso, to implement IMF-mandated austerity measures. On the opposite hand, earlier reforms fostered pluralism and opened up political life by way of schooling, energetic commerce union actions, and grassroots engagement. As a outcome, two Brazilian actors emerged: the bankers and capitalists on one hand and social/political activists on the opposite (Maxwell, 1999).

The latter group gave a political voice to the disadvantaged, together with the Pentecostals and African Brazilians. Cordoso’s reputation amongst these individuals was declining, as they perceived him as pleasant to bankers and industrialists however hostile to employees. The article concludes that because the austerity measures led to financial slowdown, making the president unpopular, he turned to persuasion and compromise to win over the populace.

Lehman, D. (1998). Fundamentalism and globalism. Third World Quarterly, 19(4), 607-634.

The article examines the fundamentalist wave sweeping throughout world religions right this moment. The writer identifies the defining attribute of this phenomenon because the notion of infallibility of spiritual texts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Notably, evangelical Christian or Zionist actions have a political dimension – they type associations with ultra-nationalist attain and concentrate on territorial enlargement. Their widespread options embrace the capability to hold the message throughout cultural delimitations, dissemination of the thought of scriptural infallibility, and spiritual institutionalization by way of guidelines and rituals (Lehman, 1998).

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They emphasize the return to traditions of their strategy to sexuality with Orthodox Judaism treating ladies as unclean – associated to menstruation. In distinction, neo-Pentecostalism is exclusive, because it doesn’t draw on these traditions however somewhat seeks to deconstruct native or conventional in style cultures. In conclusion, fundamentalism’ concentrate on ladies empowerment and coping with their home issues by offering technique of financial and political participation or non-governmental motion mirrors a bottom-up type of capitalism.

Thomas, S. M. (2007). Outwitting the developed international locations? Existential insecurity and the worldwide resurgence of faith. Journal of International Affairs, 61(1), 21-45.

The crucial evaluation on this article considers the affect of the latest world resurgence of spiritual actions, together with radicalism, revivalism, or fundamentalism, on worldwide relations. Contrary to the idea of secularization, spiritual actions have gotten stronger, posing an existential safety menace (Thomas, 2007). The article’s foremost declare is that growing nations have outsmarted developed ones by being facilities of spiritual renaissance.

The writer argues that the resurgence of spiritual actions pushed by modernization and globalization will trigger a shift in 21st century overseas relations. The middle for the rising cultural and spiritual pluralism can be within the growing international locations, not the West. It will entail extra emotive or persuasive types of Christianity, together with evangelical therapeutic, which is able to impression worldwide relations. This development will not be per the existential safety argument that pulls on secularization’s concept that modernization would cut back the importance of faith. In conclusion, spiritual symbols and practices embedded in individuals’s lives will more and more play a job in politics and overseas relations a globalized world.

Thomas, S. M. (2010). Globalized God: Religion’s rising affect in worldwide politics. Foreign Affairs, 89(6), 93-101.

This article evaluates the spiritual resurgence within the context of anticipated demographic shifts and its impression on geopolitics. Demographic tendencies point out that inhabitants progress can be highest within the world South, leading to spiritual megacities within the growing world. Christianity, which started as an city motion in medieval Europe and unfold following earnings inequality patterns, will develop by way of the identical path (Thomas, 2010).

It is now evolving right into a post-Western faith dominant within the growing international locations. The writer warns that, given these tendencies, world Christianity will quickly exchange Islamist fundamentalism as a problem to the West’s overseas coverage. Additionally, spiritual adjustments occurring in China (dominated by evangelical and Islamic populations), India, and Russia (Orthodox Church) will affect geopolitics. Globalization has enhanced the participation of spiritual diaspora within the west in native advocacy and social motion, together with extremist actions resembling Al Qaeda. In conclusion, religion within the world south can be central to political struggles over human rights and democratic follow, therefore, faith is vital in future Western diplomacy.

Garcia, A. (2019). Brazil underneath Bolsonaro: Social base, agenda, and views. Journal of Global Faultlines, 6(1), 62-69.

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The article explores the rise of the far proper phenomenon globally exemplified by the election of Brazil’s president, Bolsonaro. The writer attributes the emergence of ‘Bolsonarism’ to the results of neo-liberal globalization, together with excessive unemployment charges and financial disparities that resulted from the 2008 monetary disaster. Right-wing forces’ assaults on the progressive employees social gathering in 2013 have been motivated by misplaced socioeconomic privileges – schooling and formal employment. The unemployed employees adopted conservative ethics (anti-gay and anti-feminist) that have been strengthened by evangelical teams (Garcia, 2019).

Bolsonaro positioned himself as a easy one that shares these values. Therefore, his social base contains the Pentecostal church, petty bourgeoisie, and peasant farmers that detest the ruling elite. Despite worldwide stress and an irrational discourse, Bolsonaro emerged victorious within the polls due to a faux information technique that was additionally utilized by Trump and Brexit. The article concludes that regardless of initiating in style financial packages, resembling bilateral worker-employer negotiations, the sustainability of Bolsonaro’s regime is restricted, as in style struggles and unmet pursuits are rising.

Smilde, D. (2003). Review: Evangelicals and politics in Latin America: Moving past monolithic portraits. History of Religions, 42(3), 243-248.

In this text, the writer evaluations three books analyzing the emergence of Protestantism and its impression on capitalist economics in Latin America. Historically, Catholicism’s decline within the Nineteen Eighties coincided with the expansion of evangelical church buildings that not solely emphasised redemption, morality, and therapeutic but in addition promoted individualism and democracy – a break from authoritarian methods (Smilde, 2003).

According to the article, the politics of evangelical Pentecostalism is advanced, because the church now addresses extra social points than earlier than. From the reviewed books, the writer notes that Evangelical and Catholic actors observe distinct or opposing political visions provided that Catholicism and Evangelism comprise loosely built-in actions. Another vital level made is that opposite to the belief that Evangelical actors and followers don’t share political beliefs, they certainly do since Protestantism tends to align to grassroots social inclusion. In conclusion, numerous Evangelical political engagements involving completely different actors transcend denominational strains (Catholic or Pentecostal monolith) with theology being a crucial issue.

Dixon, D. E. (1995). Review: The new Protestantism in Latin America: Remembering what we already know, testing what now we have discovered. Comparative Politics, 27(4), 479-492.

This evaluate article examines the brand new wave of Protestantism spreading in Latin America. Protestant populations have been rising for the reason that Sixties, altering the household construction, social relations, and political and financial tradition however most analyses don’t deal with cultural and political choices created domestically. From the a number of works thought of, the writer notes that the try to draw capital from North America and Europe led to Protestant enlargement within the 19th century. New social rules – communication, economics, and politics – have been launched (Dixon, 1995). He attributes the large wave and affect of Protestantism to its responsiveness to native cultural, political, and financial wants.

Its enchantment is linked to the acceptance of the poor, racial minorities (African Brazilians), and uneducated inhabitants that may take part in Protestant work with out being pressured to grasp advanced doctrines. Protestantism’s progressive stance not solely helped clear up rapid financial want however it has additionally brought on everlasting sociocultural transformation in Latin America. In conclusion, understanding the political targets of various teams, together with bishops and the underprivileged, requires cultural evaluation of Pentecostalism and progressive Catholicism.

Ramos, A. (2020). Which reality will set Brazil free: Political classes from the rise of the evangelical proper. Harvard Kennedy School Review, 20, 20-24.

Evangelicals have immense management on Brazil’s political system and democracy. This article considers the origins and unfold of neo-Pentecostalism in Brazil and the projected elevated democratic participation of evangelicals residing in poor or marginalized neighborhoods. Pentecostal church buildings appealed to this inhabitants by propagating a “message of hope and prosperity” (Ramos, 2020, p. 20). With the financial disaster, the evangelicalism is certain to extend in reputation throughout Brazil. Historically, evangelicals’ involvement in politics was restricted contemplating the precept of church-state separation.

However, with democracy got here expanded sexual rights and a decline in conventional household values. The evangelicals’ opposition of abortion and same-sex marriages ushered a brand new political period. The evangelical neighborhood is now an influential group that Bolsonaro has engaged after his reputation amongst elites declined. The writer identifies an vital lesson from this phenomenon: evangelicals’ political affect will encourage antidemocratic practices. Their sturdy stance towards abortion and same-sex unions are aligned to the far proper due to the anti-religious view adopted by leftist political actors.

Cowan, B. A. (2018). A hemispheric ethical majority: Brazil and the transnational building of the New Right. Revista Brasileira dePolítica Internacional, 61(2), 1-26.

The article examines Brazil because the epicenter of the New Right – radical deregulation, particular person autonomy, and capitalism. Considering the function of right-wing Christian conservatives in Brazil, the writer argues that the brand new politicized Christianity has modified this Right in a post-authoritarian period. The New Right arose transnationally after the Cold War as Brazilian activists supported the anti-Communist wave and the Vatican order (Cowan, 2018).

The International Policy Forum (IPF) was based to convey collectively right-wing leaders throughout nations. Its Brazilian IPF chapter was the Tradition, Family, and Property (TFP) group that leveraged transnational linkages with like-minded anti-communist neoconservatives within the USA to advance the spiritual Right based on anti-communism, morality, anti-modernism, and anti-statist dedication. Brazil’s far proper ideology emerged following right-wing disjointedness. It entails conservative evangelical politicians with a robust stance on social and ethical points and ethnocentric focus. In conclusion, the evangelical help has a transnational dimension with relationships amongst conservatives enjoying a job within the follow of the New Right.

Løland, O. J. (2020). The political situations and theological foundations of the brand new Christian proper in Brazil. Iberoamericana – Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 49(1), 63-73.

Bolsonaro’s 2018 victory in Brazil’s presidential polls was potential as a result of huge help he garnered from Evangelicals and Catholics within the nation. This article explores the theologies propagated by key spiritual figures that influenced the end result. The writer identifies three related theological classes: a supernatural type of neoliberalism, apocalyptic doctrine emphasizing good versus evil, and neoconservative Catholicism (Løland, 2020).

The spiritual teams labored with right-wing activists to popularize these doctrinal values among the many lots. The alliance capitalized on cultural situations in Brazil that aligned with the Christian Right within the US. Bolsonaro’s ascendancy as a serious political actor may be attributed to his affiliation with politically energetic conservative Christians and the theological values they espouse. These teams included the normal Pentecostal evangelicals, neo-Pentecostalism, and Catholic neoconservatives. The writer concludes that whereas some undemocratic and conservative beliefs are espoused on this Christian Right, the brand new development is more likely to contribute to democratic growth in Brazil.

Freston, P. (1999). “Neo-Pentecostalism” in Brazil: Problems of definition and the battle for hegemony. Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, 44e(105), 145-162.

This article examines Brazil’s neo-Pentecostalism, together with its typologies and efforts by new denominations to dominate Protestantism on this nation. Delving into the historical past of the Protestant neighborhood in Brazil, the writer notes that Pentecostal church buildings grew most among the many decrease socioeconomic teams. Denominations such because the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UC) grew very quick as a result of they supplied ecclesial messages interesting to the lots.

A key attribute of Pentecostalism in Brazil is that, in contrast to Catholicism, it’s extremely segmented, because it seeks to supplant earlier church buildings planted by missionaries and immigrants. Neo-Pentecostal church buildings resembling UC have emerged that enchantment to the poor and function alongside charismatic actions that serve the center class. In conclusion, UC’s battle for Protestant hegemony in Brazil has thrust it into the political sphere – it has fashioned alliances to mobilize assets for political initiatives geared toward defending Protestant actors from secularism and forming a voting bloc.

Patterson, E. (2005). Religious exercise and political participation: The Brazilian and Chilean Cases. Latin American Politics and Society, 47(1), 1-29.

This article analyzes the impact of Protestantism on Latin American politics. The writer examines the speculation whether or not completely different religions result in range in political follow. The spiritual shift in Brazil and Chile is predicated on the concept, in contrast to Catholicism, Protestant actions espouse democratic or pluralistic beliefs. Their funding in civic abilities – communication and group rules – by way of educating has enhanced citizen engagement and political participation.

Further, religious-based political events have been fashioned in Peru and Guatemala which can be allied to prime politicians. However, provided that the foundational beliefs differ between Protestants and Catholics, political habits is certain to be completely different. The writer establishes that spiritual exercise and political engagement predict public participation in Brazilian or Chilean politics for Protestants. Thus, spiritual establishments instil key abilities within the congregation that may be channeled to political exercise. Further, the completely different primary beliefs between Protestants and Catholics end in distinct manufacturers of politics by the Brazilian and Chilean public.

Freston, P. (2002). Evangelicals and politics in Latin America. Transformation, 19(4), 271-274.

Evangelical Christianity is intently tied to the Latin American democratization course of. Based on the defining options of evangelicalism (conversion, activism, infallibility of scripture, and a concentrate on Christ’s sacrifice within the cross), the article explores the direct and oblique involvement of the actors in politics and its penalties. Latin America, as a area, is marked by excessive inequalities which can be a legacy of colonial landholding practices.

A vibrant civil society emerged to deal with these points, however the evangelical neighborhood captured social considered the individuals by way of its doctrines. While political attitudes among the many Pentecostal teams in Latin America are numerous, they’re united politically of their sturdy stance towards corruption, name for spiritual egalitarianism, and truthful electoral practices. In conclusion, the evangelical teams’ participation in politics additionally extends to combating for peasant farmers towards Guatemala’s guerillas – a standard enemy – and democratization of formality features in Pentecostal church buildings to incorporate even the poor.

Reich, G., & Santos, P. S. (2013). The rise (and frequent fall) of evangelical politicians: Organization, theology, and church politics. Latin American Politics and Society, 55(4), 1-22.

Evangelical politicians in Latin America have taken up legislative roles. In Brazil, these legislators have been implicated in political corruption. This article evaluates how evangelical pursuits within the nation are protected by way of these representatives. The central argument is that evangelical’s political engagement entails three electoral approaches: rejection, particular person involvement, and a church neighborhood venture (Reich & Santos, 2013). Of the three strategies, the private mode is the least vulnerable to corruption scandals in Brazil. In distinction, the company or church neighborhood mannequin is disposed to this vice. Evangelical legislators sponsored by church buildings typically undertake machine or resource-based politics which can be related to political corruption. The authors additionally affiliate narrowing of voter bases and social gathering hopping with this electoral mode.

They additional join these attributes to evangelical implication in scandals reported throughout President da Silva’s reign (2003-2011). In conclusion, the article demonstrates the crucial function of evangelical motion and theological values (prosperity educating) in influencing legislative illustration and the disposition to political corruption.

Gutierrez, G. (1988). A theology of liberation: History, politics, and salvation. Orbis Books.

This e-book illuminates the distinctive options of liberation theology and locations them in a historic context of the revolutionary course of in Latin America. Drawing on political theology of hope and secularism in earlier texts, the writer notes that the Latin American expertise is characterised by a sample of political domination. While on the world entrance, richer nations dominate poorer ones, in Latin America a robust elite controls the lots.

However, in contrast to in different third world international locations, the church is part of the dominant group and a vital cultural actor on this area. Thus, Christians should endeavor to free individuals from this domination by way of radical assaults on unfair methods and constructions. While pre-evangelization emphasised salvation, in Latin America the church operates past such a slim scope of self-liberation by performing on behalf of the oppressed. The social realities drive the church into working with these repressed in a liberation battle.

References

Burity, J. A., & Santana, F. (2016). Minoritization and pluralization: What is the “people” that pentecostal politicization is constructing? Latin American Perspectives, 43(3), 116-132. Web.

Costa, L. M. & Ferreira, S. J. H. (2016). The conservative response in Brazil: The pendulum has swung to the correct on the earth situation. World Affairs: The Journal of International Issues, 20(2), 152-168. Web.

Cowan, B. A. (2018). A hemispheric ethical majority: Brazil and the transnational building of the New Right. Revista Brasileira dePolítica Internacional, 61(2), 1-26. Web.

de Santibañes, F. (2020). Popular conservatism rising in Latin America. Horizons: Journal of International Relations and Sustainable Development, 15, 220-233. Web.

Dixon, D. E. (1995). Review: The new Protestantism in Latin America: Remembering what we already know, testing what now we have discovered. Comparative Politics, 27(4), 479-492. Web.

Freston, P. (1999). “Neo-Pentecostalism” in Brazil: Problems of definition and the battle for hegemony. Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, 44e(105), 145-162. Web.

Freston, P. (2002). Evangelicals and politics in Latin America. Transformation, 19(4), 271-274. Web.

Garcia, A. (2019). Brazil underneath Bolsonaro: Social base, agenda, and views. Journal of Global Faultlines, 6(1), 62-69. Web.

Gutierrez, G. (1988). A theology of liberation: History, politics, and salvation. Orbis Books.

Lehman, D. (1998). Fundamentalism and globalism. Third World Quarterly, 19(4), 607-634. Web.

Løland, O. J. (2020). The political situations and theological foundations of the brand new Christian proper in Brazil. Iberoamericana – Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 49(1), 63-73. Web.

Maxwell, Ok. (1999). The two Brazils. The Wilson Quarterly, 23(1), 50-60. Web.

Patterson, E. (2005). Religious exercise and political participation: The Brazilian and Chilean Cases. Latin American Politics and Society, 47(1), 1-29. Web.

Ramos, A. (2020). Which reality will set Brazil free: Political classes from the rise of the evangelical proper. Harvard Kennedy School Review, 20, 20-24. Web.

Reich, G., & Santos, P. S. (2013). The rise (and frequent fall) of evangelical politicians: Organization, theology, and church politics. Latin American Politics and Society, 55(4), 1-22. Web.

Smilde, D. (2003). Review: Evangelicals and politics in Latin America: Moving past monolithic portraits. History of Religions, 42(3), 243-248. Web.

Thomas, S. M. (2007). Outwitting the developed international locations? Existential insecurity and the worldwide resurgence of faith. Journal of International Affairs, 61(1), 21-45. Web.

Thomas, S. M. (2010). Globalized God: Religion’s rising affect in worldwide politics. Foreign Affairs, 89(6), 93-101. Web.

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