- Introduction of the Scenario
- A Summary of the Scenario
- The Theorists
- Influence of the conditions on character and habits
- The affect of the conditions on habits
- How the person’s character modified given the state of affairs
- Conclusion of the Scenario
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Introduction of the Scenario
This case examine applies ideas of person-situation interactions to discover the case of Sharon. Person-situation interplay assesses whether or not the person or the state of affairs is extra dominant in influencing behaviors. Sharon shows a talkative and pleasant carefree angle towards visitors at her place throughout a cocktail party. Sharon’s visitors typically benefit from the occasion.
However, Sharon is totally completely different when invited by one in all her visitors. She solely is aware of her host on the occasion. Sharon will get a drink and spend most her time in a nook, removed from different visitors. She not often speaks and solely offers easy solutions of no more than three phrases and shortly thanks her host leaves with out farewell to others after the dinner.
A Summary of the Scenario
Sharon is an lively, talkative particular person at her house occasion. She is pleasant, shows carefree angle towards visitor, and makes the occasion pleasurable.
However, Sharon is withdrawn at a celebration exterior her house during which she solely is aware of her host. Person-situation interplay assesses whether or not the person or the state of affairs is extra dominant in influencing behaviors.
Sharon will get a drink and spend most her time in a nook, removed from different visitors. She not often speaks and solely offers easy solutions of no more than three phrases and shortly thanks her host leaves with out farewell to others after the dinner.
The state of affairs at one other occasion has modified Sharon into an introvert who can barely work together with others. Thus, the state of affairs dominates Sharon’s behaviors on the occasion (Buss, 2009).
Henry Murray (1893-1988) was an American psychologist who proposed the speculation of character primarily based on people’ motives, presses and desires (Hogan, 2009). Needs are perceived as people’ potential or skills to react to in a given method beneath a selected state of affairs. Thus, theories of character have a tendency to point out that personalities depict people’ behaviors, that are decided by wants.
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Some of those wants should not everlasting and are dynamic. Conversely, different wants are comparatively deeply rooted in people. Murray famous that many psychogenic wants happened unconsciously. Nevertheless, they influenced character considerably.
Based on Murray’s principle, Sharon’s behaviors rely on her fast wants and the state of affairs. Thus, varied conditions provoke completely different responses from her. Sharon’s wants affect her behaviors on the events. In this case, state of affairs determines the habits.
Harry Stack Sullivan argued that people wouldn’t have single, mounted character. The theorist referred to this as phantasm of individuality (Friedman & Schustack, 2003). This implies that the notion that a person can solely possess a single character is an phantasm. People are typically completely different in numerous conditions and infrequently take into consideration what different individuals understand about them. Hence, these ideas adjustments responses in a given state of affairs.
Sullivan additionally referred to social self. That is, character is influenced by interactions with different individuals. Social self-further reinforces the concept people have a tendency to vary in numerous conditions primarily based on their relations with others. Thus, character can current enduring interpersonal patterns however will change. Peers, social acceptance, isolation, rejection and loneness amongst others are vital features that have an effect on particular person behaviors in numerous conditions.
Hence, Sharon turns into remoted and lonely due to a distinct state of affairs during which she doesn’t recognized anybody.
Influence of the conditions on character and habits
The case of Sharon reveals that the state of affairs, which is usually ignored, is important in figuring out behaviors of people in numerous settings. Thus, behaviors alone don’t mirror character. Situational elements, even people who seem like comparatively refined, might not totally remove results of character. This implies that one can’t solely use habits alone to clarify character. Instead, the reason for character ought to account for particular environments and completely different conditions. Thus, the situational view on habits and character is crucial to understanding people.
Thus, theorists argue that character and behaviors might change primarily based on the prevailing state of affairs (Friedman & Schustack, 2003). Nevertheless, there may be additionally dispositional clarification to character and habits, which deal with comparatively everlasting behaviors throughout conditions and over interval. Hence, completely different situational circumstances shouldn’t confuse researchers by understanding the situation of Sharon.
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Sharon depicts vital adjustments in behaviors and character in a distinct state of affairs and setting. Situations may work together to have an effect on habits and character of people. Some individuals may show extra constant habits patterns in numerous conditions, however the identical can’t be stated of Sharon.
Behaviors may solely emerge in particular conditions. In addition, character might lack fixed results on behaviors as a result of such influences might fade. Hence, Sharon can’t have constant behaviors in numerous events (Fleeson & Noftle, 2009).
Some conditions might elicit extra expression of true character, which is the case at Sharon’s house. However, in a distinct occasion, the state of affairs can solely provoke a restricted vary of behaviors. Thus, conditions affect Sharon’s responses whereas her character stays passive.
One can say that state of affairs shows Sharon’s behaviors and responses in numerous events.
The affect of the conditions on habits
It has been demonstrated that varied conditions have impacts on human behaviors. In most circumstances, nevertheless, people are likely to ignore the influences of conditions on their talks, actions and ideas, which result in poor understanding of character. Hence, situational view ought to at all times be thought of when evaluating behaviors.
The situation of Sharon depicts that completely different eventualities manipulate behaviors. It is due to this fact necessary to think about conditions and circumstances to clarify particular person behaviors. It appears that conditions may very well be chargeable for inconsistency in human behaviors.
Behaviors might not be constant throughout completely different conditions. This implies that people’ behaviors might not surpass the prevailing state of affairs, the setting and second to supply a constant habits all through mirrored in ideas, actions and talks (Friedman & Schustack, 2003). The case of Sharon reveals that no matter an individual does may very well be completely dependent upon the prevailing state of affairs.
As many researchers have demonstrated, behaviors rely on prevailing conditions (Carnahan & McFarland, 2007). The situation of Sharon additionally displays such findings. Hence, people’ behaviors from one state of affairs to a different are variable, and such behaviors are typically influenced by situational circumstances (Friedman & Schustack, 2003).
Although state of affairs view maintains that behaviors are influenced by conditions, some conditions might enable sure behaviors to prevail. In the case of Sharon, nevertheless, the beforehand expressed behaviors at her occasion didn’t prevail in a distinct state of affairs. Some people might show ease of adaptation to completely different conditions, however Sharon lacks such adaptation mechanisms. Hence, Sharon depicts that particular person’s behaviors may very well be much less adaptable in comparatively new conditions. Behaviors, due to this fact, can’t dominate in sure conditions. In some conditions, the position of character may very well be passive resulting from situational calls for and anticipated responses.
How the person’s character modified given the state of affairs
Situations play vital roles in influencing people’ behaviors. The case of Sharon depicts how character can change from talkative, pleasant, carefree, and delight to withdrawn, loneliness, much less talkative and shyness. These adjustments are decided the prevailing conditions on the events.
By observing particular person’s character adjustments, one can conclude that Sharon has clearly reveal different traits and behaviors, that are typically attributed to the prevailing varied conditions and environments (McCrae, 2002).
These responses are mirrored within the new setting during which Sharon maybe feels threatened, much less safe, shy and unknown. The interpretation of the state of affairs may have provoked these responses and, due to this fact, Sharon is unable to adapt to the brand new state of affairs. One can observe that the character has been depicted solely conditions the place they may very well be wanted or related.
Generally, character ought to be extra constant throughout varied conditions. However, this consistency might not at all times be realized in sure conditions (Friedman & Schustack, 2003). It has been noticed that some conditions are chargeable for eliciting sure behaviors, which mirror character. Certain behaviors ought to solely displayed in conditions the place they’re deemed as related, however in some cases, conditions might suppress sure character. For occasion, nervousness or shyness may emerge in some conditions to foretell behaviors and character of people. On the opposite, such behaviors and traits might not be witnessed in different conditions.
Sharon, as an illustration, demonstrates that her character adjustments primarily based on prevailing conditions, and a few of her actions, ideas and all that she does are influenced by conditions.
Individuals even have selections of conditions reminiscent of relationships, profession, place, buddies, and way of life amongst others, which mirror their traits. However, on this situation, state of affairs has dominated character and, due to this fact, conditions can be utilized to account for people’ character.
Conclusion of the Scenario
The person-situation interactions presentation has lined the case of Sharon, who shows completely different behaviors at completely different conditions. Person-situation interplay discourse evaluates whether or not the person or the state of affairs is extra dominant in influencing behaviors. In this situation, it’s famous that the state of affairs was extra dominant in influencing Sharon’s behaviors. Her responses had been elicited by the prevailing conditions.
Overall, the person-situation interactions have led to numerous methods of explaining how particular person character interacts with conditions to impress new behaviors. Consequently, when explaining behaviors and character traits, it’s essential to account for the influences of conditions and acknowledge that character might not at all times be constant.
Buss, D. M. (2009). An evolutionary formulation of particular person–state of affairs interactions. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(2), 241–242. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.019.
Carnahan, T., & McFarland, S. (2007). Revisiting the Stanford Prison Experiment: Could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(5), 603-614. doi: 10.1177/0146167206292689.
Fleeson, W., & Noftle, E. (2009). The finish of the person-situation debate: an rising synthesis within the reply to the consistency query. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(4), 1667-1684.
Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2003). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hogan, R. (2009). Much ado about nothing: The person-situation debate. Journal of Research in character, 43(2), 249.
McCrae, R. (2002). The maturation of character psychology: Adult character improvement and psychological well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 36(4), 307-317.