Presidential Debates: Political Interests Motivations and Opinions Presentation


  • Presidential debates purpose at presenting candidates in a aggressive context;
  • The citizenry are free to judge candidates in presidential debates;
  • Debates have an effect on individuals and promote angle reinforcement;
  • Political pursuits and motivation are essential for reinforcement throughout presidential debates;
  • Argumentation is utilized by candidates as a robust weapon.

There isn’t any different American workplace extra highly effective than the presidency (Campbell, 2008), and the political debates is without doubt one of the steps throughout the elections that decide, who can really maintain this workplace and use its powers. Debates are thought of because the final alternatives for candidates to current themselves, introduce their positions and intentions, show their necessity for society, clarify why their opponents shouldn’t be supported in a differ well mannered (if potential) method, and make political reinforcement potential as a result of demonstration of political pursuits and using motivation and argumentation.

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  • Serious choices must be made regarding the catastrophic issues society has to face (Freeley & Steinberg, 2013).
  • The citizenry ought to perceive that presidential debates and marketing campaign commercial are used to have an effect on to not inform individuals (Huber & Arceneaux, 2007).
  • Debates often draw respectable viewers in order that many individuals endure a substantial impression of the discussions which occur between candidates (Schwartz, 2008).

Freeley & Steinberg (2013) admit that the autumn of 2008 was turned out to be a problematic interval for the American authorities. The debates needed to enlightened the financial challenges in addition to many different public points (like ladies’s rights for reproductive well being providers, church freedoms, or well being care reforms) and worldwide relations that hassle the residents (Freeley & Steinberg , 2013). Unfortunately, candidates are often motivated to achieve some outcomes and results on the citizenry reasonably than take into consideration the strategies to realize the fascinating consensuses. This is why every individual, who’s engaged in presidential debates and elections, ought to think about private political pursuits and depend on private political beliefs to make the elections truthful and simply.


Answers to the next questions must be given to comprehend a real price of political debates:

  • How can debates affect the analysis of the candidates?
  • Who will be affected by debates?
  • What limitations are potential whereas evaluating presidential debates?
  • What is angle reinforcement and its results?

To comprehend how political pursuits, motivations, and opinions are united, it’s essential to reply an inventory of questions and depend on the research provided in Mullinix’s article. The creator believes that “the heterogeneity in reinforcement effects has normative implications for the study of political communication and public opinion formation” (Mullinix, 2015, p. 270). It can also be proved that extra politically individuals could also be affected by debates. And despite the truth that debates are thought of to be an necessary contributing issue throughout the elections (Kraus, 2013), their impression don’t contact upon every member of society. This is why opinion reinforcement turns into a big points of all debates (Garrett, 2009).


  • The analysis of previous research;
  • Research on previous debates;
  • Analysis of such elements like argumentation, motivation, and reinforcement;
  • Personal analysis of debates and the results of such elements like motivation, opinion, and curiosity.

The article underneath evaluation incorporates a number of concepts on how the idea of political pursuits and the peculiarities of presidential debates could also be investigated and analyzed. First, the creator provides to contemplate a lot of previous research made within the chosen area. These research often present individuals with the data on the previous debates and their potential results (Mullinix, 2015). The analysis of argumentation as a way to steer individuals (Kalemaj, 2014) and motivation with its results on debates and angle responses particularly (Federico, 2009) helps to determine robust and weak sides of presidential debates and the methods of how they are often really organized. Finally, the articles provokes to develop private opinions in regards to the price of debates and knowledge provided inside.

Main Issues

  • Presidential debate;
  • Partisan motivation;
  • Political curiosity;
  • Opinion reinforcement;
  • Heterogeneity of results;
  • Presidential marketing campaign;
  • Polarization.

Mullinix’s article incorporates a lot of points that need to be recognized, defined, and analyzed with their specific price in a specific course of. Presidential debates are outlined as the primary course of underneath evaluation. It is important to understand its essence and potential results on individuals. To obtain this objective, the position of partisan motivation must be talked about. In addition, the citizenry ought to observe their very own political pursuits to create truthful polarization and opinion reinforcement avoiding a lot of heterogeneous results of presidential campaigns.


Presidential debates of 2008 (Obama-McCain) turns into a perfect case for evaluation as a result of following details (Mullinix, 2015):

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  1. No racial prejudices;
  2. General points are chosen for dialogue;
  3. Both candidates are completely motivated;
  4. Time of debates is completely chosen;
  5. Various media sources could also be used to look at the debates.

The representatives of two races participated within the debates of 2008. Obama (Democrat) and McCain (Republican) have been neither incumbent presidents nor vice presidents. So, individuals acquired an opportunity not solely to judge their new insurance policies and concepts. The residents have been in a position to study higher the character of the candidates, their very own political pursuits with regard to such basic points like international coverage and nationwide safety, and their skills to slim down the matters and present their very own positions. Opinion reinforcement turned out to be potential as a result of candidates’ motivation to not outline who was the most effective however to elucidate why every of them was price consideration. People have been in a position to observe the debates by way of a wide range of media sources and construct their very own attitudes to the occasion (Kirk & Schill, 2011).

Debates are affected by:

  1. Attachment to a celebration;
  2. Candidates’ motivation;
  3. Emotions;
  4. Reinforcement;
  5. The stage of political curiosity.

Mullinix (2015) underlines that “one’s attachment to a party is a significant predictor of how people will alter their candidate evaluations after viewing the debate” (p. 283). Though individuals achieve respect to the candidate of their very own preferable social gathering, the outcomes of debate could affect the ultimate angle to an individual. Emotions additionally develop into a form of mediator in debates and political data in search of (Valentino, Hutchings, Banks, & Davis, 2008). Unfortunately, solely individuals, who’re extra fascinated with politics and its potential results on society, could comprehend a real price of debate and know the right way to use data obtained in a results of debate. Other individuals want extra particular directions or hints on the right way to consider candidates and depend on their political pursuits.


The solutions to the questions recognized earlier:

  1. The method individuals consider presidential debates is specific certainly. The problem of partisan perceptual display must be thought of.
  2. People with robust political pursuits are extra effected by debates.
  3. The stage of political participation could also be restricted by political pursuits, rationality, political data, secure attitudes.
  4. Reinforcement results are essential for presidential debates as they predetermined the best way of how politicians use their skills and introduce them to the citizenry.

The outcomes of the investigations made by the creator of the article show that presidential debates could also be affected by a lot of details in addition to trigger quite a few modifications throughout the elections. It is important to understand that political pursuits and opinions outline the standard of debates, and other people ought to show and use them in a correct method (Valentino et al., 2008).

Lessons Learned

  • Politics is the sphere that defines the standard of life significantly;
  • Presidency is the workplace that often makes crucial choices;
  • Presidential debates is a big a part of an election course of;
  • Reinforcement and opinions outline the best way of how debates are developed;
  • People are free to depend on their very own political pursuits to create an angle to a specific candidate;
  • Motivation is a vital think about debates.

The classes realized on the finish of the examine helps to grasp how essential presidential debates will be. People ought to by no means neglect their alternative to hearken to this type of debate and make conclusions about candidates, their intentions, and data. The citizenry themselves make choices and select the president, who will run the entire nation. This is why this selection must be correctly evaluated.


  1. Never neglect presidential debate;
  2. Use data found throughout the debate;
  3. Consider private political curiosity and opinions;
  4. Remember in regards to the significance of opinion reinforcement;
  5. Do not be afraid to vary thoughts;
  6. Help the others to study the price of political debates and presidential debates particularly;
  7. Presidential debate is the sphere of life that’s altering consistently and must be studied and improved on a regular basis.

The conclusions are made on the premise of the article by Mullinix and ten extra sources that debate presidential debate and the position of political beliefs amongst strange residents. People consider candidates utilizing their very own rules and data, nonetheless, a few of them could undergo from such ideas like reinforcement and polarization in case they’re poorly understood. Presidential debates could also be improved by a lot of elements, nonetheless, all these enhancements ought to have appreciable grounds and explanations.

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Campbell, J.E. (2008). The American marketing campaign, second version: U.S. presidential campaigns and the nationwide vote. Texas: A&M University Press.

Federico, C.M. (2009). How individuals arrange their political attitudes: The roles of ideology, experience, and evaluative motivation. American Psychological Association. Web.

Freeley, A. & Steinberg, D. (2013). Argumentation and debate. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Garrett, R.Ok. (2009). Politically motivated reinforcement in search of: Reframing the selective publicity debate. Journal of Communication, 59(4), 676-699.

Huber, G.A. & Arceneaux, Ok. (2007). Identifying the persuasive results of presidential promoting. American Journal of Political Science, 51(4), 957-977.

Kalemaj, S. (2014). Argumentation in up to date persuasive discourse. European Scientific Journal, 10(11), 77-87.

Kirk, R. & Schill, D. (2011). A digital agora: Citizen participation within the 2008 presidential debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(3), 325-347.

Kraus, S. (2013). Televised presidential debates and public coverage. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

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Mullinix, Ok.J. (2015). Presidential debates, partisan motivations, and political curiosity. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 45(2), 270-289.

Schwartz, J. (2008). Whom to belief with a thumb on the buzzer. The New York Times. Web.

Valentino, N.A., Hutchings, V.L., Banks, A.J., Davis, A.Ok. (2008). Is a nervous citizen citizen? Emotions, political data in search of, and studying through the Internet. Political Psychology, 29(2), 247-273

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