Reentry Correctional Programs: Analysis and Comparison Presentation


  • Topic:
    • Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) from England and Choosing to Think, Thinking to Choose (CTTC) from Philadelphia, PA.
  • Outline:
    • Overview and Sociocultural Perspectives.
    • Effectiveness.
    • Comparisons/Suggestions for Improvement.

This presentation is devoted to the evaluation and comparability of two reentry packages: the Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) curriculum that’s utilized in England, UK and Choosing to Think, Thinking to Choose (CTTC), which is employed in Philadelphia, PA. The presentation will provide their overview, show the info which evidences their effectiveness, and recommend a comparability with some notes about potential enhancements.

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ETS: Overview, Sociocultural Perspectives

Travers, Wakeling, Mann, and Hollin (2013); National Institute of Justice (2017):

  • Cognitive–behavioral abilities; 20 2-hour classes.
  • Population: medium/high-risk offenders, 18+, female and male, any ethnicity.
  • Sociocultural context:
    • The significance of cognitive-behavioral abilities for reentry; the problems that may result in their deficiency.
    • No cultural customization.

As described by Travers et al. (2013) and the National Institute of Justice (2017), ETS is a program that goals to develop cognitive-behavioral abilities in medium-to-high-risk grownup offenders of any gender and ethnicity. To this finish, ETS makes use of a collection of 2-hour classes delivered by the jail employees. The program is predicated on the concept cognitive-behavioral abilities are vital for reentry and acknowledges the truth that quite a lot of socioeconomic and sociocultural components can hinder their growth. However, this system doesn’t seem to have any particular cultural dimensions, which will be considered as a limitation.

CTTC: Overview, Sociocultural Perspectives

Barnes, Hyatt, and Sherman (2016); National Institute of Justice (2018a):

  • Cognitive-behavioral remedy; 14 2-hour classes.
  • Population: high-risk, male,18+, Black and different.
  • Sociocultural context:
    • Takes into consideration the significance of social abilities for reentry.
    • Customized for Black males.

According to Barnes et al. (2016) and the National Institute of Justice (2018a), CTTC is predicated on cognitive-behavioral remedy (CBT) and contains 14 two-hour-long classes which might be delivered by jail employees to high-risk male grownup prisoners. The program is usually targeted on Black folks, however different races and ethnicities are additionally eligible. From the sociocultural perspective, this system is considerably geared in the direction of a selected ethnicity, which suggests a type of cultural customization. However, the discovered supplies on CTTC don’t concentrate on the best way this customization is achieved. Also, this system acknowledges the importance of social abilities for reentry and, in consequence, focuses on them.

ETS Effectiveness

The National Institute of Justice (2017) notes that there are not less than three related research which examine ETS and its effectiveness. It ought to be famous that there’s a randomized managed trial which is dated 2003. It demonstrated the effectiveness of ETS in decreasing reconviction charges. However, the supply may be very outdated, which is why it’s not current right here. Newer ones can be mentioned. Fig. 1 demonstrates that the report commissioned by the British Ministry of Justice discovered a statistically important discount of reconviction charges within the therapy group of ETS. However, the creator notes that with out the individuals who dropped out of this system, the discount is barely smaller and should lose statistical significance (Sadlier, 2010).

For reoffending, the image is identical as will be seen in fig. 2: the frequency of reoffending was lowered within the therapy group (Sadlier, 2010). However, this determine doesn’t rely on the drop-out price. It ought to be famous that the report targeted on 257 individuals who took half in ETS; the management pattern was completely matched. Overall, the methodology of the report appears to make its outcomes dependable, but it surely tracked the individuals for one yr solely.

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A newer examine by Travers et al. (2013) was targeted on a bigger pattern (17,047 individuals within the therapy group) for 2 years, but it surely additionally studied an ancient times (between 2000 and 2005). Additionally, it in contrast the therapy group to an mechanically generated pattern of 19,792 folks. Only males have been eligible for the examine, and it was discovered that ETS resulted in a major discount in reoffending, particularly when longer sentences have been involved. Thus, two current research on ETS recommend that it’s efficient. See fig. 3 for illustration.

Figure 1. Reconviction price (1 yr) for ETS therapy and management teams. Based on the info from the report by Sadlier (2010, pp. 20-21).
Figure 2. Reoffending per 100 launched prisoners (1 yr) for ETS therapy and management teams. Based on the info from the report by Sadlier (2010, pp. 20-21).
Figure 3. Reoffending charges (2 years) for ETS therapy and management teams. Based on the info from the article by Travers et al. (2010, p. 11).

Alternative to ETS?

  • Gobbett and Sellen (2013):
    • New strategy to ETS: Thinking Skills Programme (TSP).
    • TSP proven to be simpler (psychometric assessments).
    • But: very small pattern; points with statistical significance.
    • Conclusion: extra analysis wanted.

A current examine by Gobbett and Sellen (2013) additionally in contrast ETS to its extra fashionable model, which is termed the Thinking Skills Programme (TSP). Gobbett and Sellen (2013) present that the latter could also be simpler because it has larger scores for all of the measures that the authors employed, together with, for instance, impulsivity, entitlement, and so forth. The authors selected to not contemplate reconviction information.

It will be urged that the strategy of Gobbett and Sellen (2013) has benefit: you will need to contemplate the influence {that a} cognitive-behavioral program has on the individuals’ pondering. However, the authors used a really small pattern and made conclusions based mostly on the variations in scores (not its statistical significance). Thus, extra analysis on this regard is required.

CTTC Effectiveness

There is much less information on CTTS; the National Institute of Justice (2018a) identifies just one current examine that’s price noting. Barnes et al. (2016) study the reoffending in 1,289 folks, 457 of which have been randomly positioned within the intervention group. The pattern was massive, however the examine adopted the individuals for just one yr. The outcomes indicated a statistically important discount within the prevalence of reoffending when all offenses have been thought of without delay. However, the authors additionally introduced the data for various kinds of offenses, through which case the importance was not current for any of them. No statistically important impact on the frequency of reoffending was discovered (see fig. 4). It ought to be famous that the ETS research didn’t contemplate numerous forms of offenses individually. However, the modifications within the frequency of reoffending for CTTC weren’t statistically important, and, in consequence, the National Institute of Justice (2018a) deemed CTTC not efficient.

Figure 4. Frequency and prevalence of reoffending (1 yr) for CTTC therapy and management teams. Based on the info from the article by Barnes et al. (2016, pp. 13-14).

Comparison and Suggestions for Improvement

  • Two related packages; ETS => 3 supportive research, and CTTC => one disproving examine.
  • Conclusion: ETS simpler than CTTC (National Institute of Justice, 2018b).

Potential enhancements:

  • CTTC: overview of the strategies.
  • Both: supply by professionals.

Thus, it’s obvious that the 2 approaches could be anticipated to have completely different effectivity. ETS is supported by not less than three research. CTTC has just one randomized managed trial devoted to it, and the latter means that CTTC isn’t efficient. The National Institute of Justice (2018b) signifies that the info from high-quality analysis can be utilized to outline the effectiveness of a reentry program. Also, the packages are principally related: they use CBT-based strategies to offer high-risk offenders with the abilities required for reentry. Thus, it may be urged that the packages will be in contrast, and the comparability could be in favor of ETS as proven by the introduced statistical analyses of reoffending and reconviction.

However, as identified by Gobbett and Sellen (2013), reentry packages could profit from some enhancements. First, it’s obvious that CTTC requires the revision of its content material and strategies since it’s not efficient in its present kind. However, it’s extra vital to notice that, because it has been talked about, each packages are delivered by jail employees. Barnes et al. (2016) show that the people who find themselves assigned to this activity usually lack related coaching. The chance of delivering packages by professionals or coaching employees for this exercise appears to be a possible and vital enchancment technique. Thus, the introduction {of professional} supply is the one revision that ought to be urged for each packages.

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  • Statistical analyses of outcomes: ETS simpler than CTTC?
  • Lack of analysis (extra wanted):
    • Only particular metrics (most frequently, reoffending).
    • Few research; some outdated.
  • Potential enhancements: skilled supply.

In abstract, the ETS has been proven to be simpler than CTTC. This conclusion is predicated on the statistical evaluation of the charges of reoffending and reconviction. However, it ought to be famous that each packages are understudied. They require extra consideration from researchers for conclusive statements to be made as a result of the variety of research devoted to them is small, and a few of them are outdated. Additionally, the literature that does exist appears to concentrate on particular metrics, which illustrate the packages’ effectiveness however don’t replicate it totally. For instance, the investigation of the psychometric parameters will be thought of. Finally, each ETS and CTTC will be improved by way of the introduction {of professional} supply, which the important thing suggestion for his or her revision that may be proposed.


Barnes, G., Hyatt, J., & Sherman, L. (2016). Even slightly bit helps. Criminal Justice And Behavior, 44(4), 611-630. Web.

Gobbett, M., & Sellen, J. (2013). An analysis of the HM Prison Service “Thinking Skills Programme” utilizing psychometric assessments. International Journal Of Offender Therapy And Comparative Criminology, 58(4), 454-473. Web.

National Institute of Justice. (2017). Program profile: Enhanced Thinking Skills (England). Web.

National Institute of Justice. (2018a). Program profile: Choosing to Think, Thinking to Choose. Web.

National Institute of Justice. (2018b). Research on returning offender packages and promising practices. Web.

Sadlier, G. (2010). Evaluation of the influence of the HM Prison Service Enhanced Thinking Skills programme on reoffending outcomes of the surveying prisoner crime discount (SPCR) pattern. Web.

Travers, R., Wakeling, H. C., Mann, R. E., & Hollin, C. R. (2013). Reconviction following a cognitive abilities intervention: An various quasi‐experimental methodology. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 18(1), 48-65. Web.

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