Using Illusions to Decrease Pain Presentation

Goals of the Experiment

To scale back the burden of complicated regional ache syndrome (CRPS):

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  • CRPS is a continual ache that lasts for greater than a half a yr (Stanton-Hicks, 2018);
  • The ache is a manifestation of an harm (Stanton-Hicks, 2018);
  • It usually has affect on solely a single limb (Stanton-Hicks, 2018);
  • Research means that CRPS emerges on account of harm incurred by nervous techniques (Boesch et al., 2016).

Proposed Solution

  • Visual manipulation of a painful area of the physique has the potential to lower perceived ache.
  • Mirror remedy is an economical answer and the specified illusionary intervention on this experiment;
    • Costly options, akin to using Virtual Reality has not proven vital advantages (Harvie et al., 2020).
  • The thought is that painful limb is hidden behind a mirror and the affected person sees the motion of the opposite limb that’s wholesome.
  • After perceiving that there are not any visible distortions of the painful limb, ache begins to say no.

Possible Factors Affecting the Results

  • If a motion of a limb causes insufferable ache, then the affected person could not want to proceed with the experiment.
  • Some continual pains could also be brought on by bodily harm to the tissue, and subsequently, manipulating the physique half’s notion could not assist (Pamment & Aspell, 2017).
  • Impatience of people who anticipate rapid outcomes could negatively contribute to the outcomes of the experiment.


  • The experiment will succeed usually, as a result of:
    • Pain is usually subjective.
    • Nervous system is chargeable for ache, illusions could act as a painkiller.
  • In circumstances when using illusions for remedy of ache is feasible, illusions are a greater various to utilizing opioids, as a result of:
    • Opioids have many adversarial results, together with each bodily and cognitive outcomes (Chung et al., 2019).
    • Opioids could trigger dependence, which can later lead to substance abuse (Chung et al., 2019).


  • Boesch, E., Bellan, V., Moseley, G. L., & Stanton, T. R. (2016). The impact of bodily illusions on scientific ache: A scientific evaluate and meta-analysis. Pain, 157(3), 516-529.
  • Chung, C. P., Callahan, S. T., Cooper, W. O., Dupont, W. D., Murray, Ok. T., Franklin, A. D., … & Ray, W. A. (2019). Individual brief‐performing opioids and the chance of opioid‐associated adversarial occasions in adolescents. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 28(11), 1448-1456.
  • Harvie, D. S., Smith, R. T., Moseley, G. L., Meulders, A., Michiels, B., & Sterling, M. (2020). Illusion-enhanced digital actuality train for neck ache: A replicated single case collection. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 36(2), 101-109.
  • Pamment, J., & Aspell, J. E. (2017). Putting ache out of thoughts with an ‘out of body’ phantasm. European Journal of Pain, 21(2), 334-342.
  • Stanton-Hicks, M. (2018). Complex regional ache syndrome. In J. Cheng & R. W. Rosenquist (Eds.), Fundamentals of Pain Medicine (pp. 211-220). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

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